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Joining of Polymer-Metal Hybrid Structures: Principles and Applications

Joining of Polymer-Metal Hybrid Structures: Principles and Applications

Sergio T. Amancio Filho (Editor), Lucian-Attila Blaga (Editor)

ISBN: 978-1-119-46677-2

Dec 2017

416 pages

$140.99

Description

A comprehensive introduction to the concepts of joining technologies for hybrid structures

This book introduces the concepts of joining technology for polymer-metal hybrid structures by addressing current and new joining methods. This is achieved by using a balanced approach focusing on the scientific features (structural, physical, chemical, and metallurgical/polymer science phenomena) and engineering properties (mechanical performance, design, applications, etc.) of the currently available and new joining processes. It covers such topics as mechanical fastening, adhesive bonding, advanced joining methods, and statistical analysis in joining technology.

Joining of Polymer-Metal Hybrid Structures: Principles and Applications is structured by joining principles, in adhesion-based, mechanical fastened, and direct-assembly methods. The book discusses such recent technologies as friction riveting, friction spot joining and ultrasonic joining. This is used for applications where the original base material characteristics must remain unchanged. Additional sections cover the main principles of statistical analysis in joining technology (illustrated with examples from the field of polymer-metal joining). Joining methods discussed include mechanical fastening (bolting, screwing, riveting, hinges, and fits of polymers and composites), adhesive bonding, and other advanced joining methods (friction staking, laser welding, induction welding, etc.).

  • Provides a combined engineering and scientific approach used to describe principles, properties, and applications of polymer-metal hybrid joints 
  • Describes the current developments in design of experiments and statistical analysis in joining technology with emphasis on joining of polymer-metal hybrid structures 
  • Covers recent innovations in joining technology of polymer-metal hybrid joints including friction riveting, friction spot joining, friction staking, and ultrasonic joining 
  • Principles illustrated by pictures, 3D-schemes, charts, and drawings using examples from the field of polymer-metal joining 

Joining of Polymer-Metal Hybrid Structures: Principles and Applications will appeal to chemical, polymer, materials, metallurgical, composites, mechanical, process, product, and welding engineers, scientists and students, technicians, and joining process professionals.

List of Contributors xiii

Preface xvii

Part I Joining Processes Based on Adhesion Forces 1

1 Principles of Adhesive Bonding 3
Mariana D. Banea, Lucas F. M. da Silva, and Raul D. S. G. Campilho

1.1 Introduction 3

1.2 General Basics 4

1.3 Advantages and Disadvantages of Adhesive Bonding 5

1.4 Effect of Surface Preparation and the Environmental Factors 7

1.5 Adhesive Properties 10

1.6 Joint Manufacture 12

1.6.1 Preparation of the Adherends 13

1.6.2 Adhesive Application 14

1.6.3 Joint Assembly 14

1.6.4 Curing 16

1.7 Joint Design 16

1.7.1 Failure Mode 17

1.7.2 Analysis of Adhesively Bonded Joints 18

1.7.2.1 AnalyticalMethods 18

1.7.2.2 Finite Element Method 19

1.8 Recent Developments 22

1.9 Conclusions 23

References 24

2 Adhesive Bonding of Polymer Composites to Lightweight Metals 29
Raul D. S. G. Campilho, Lucas F.M. da Silva, and Mariana D. Banea

2.1 Introduction 29

2.2 Characteristics and Applications of Hybrid Bonding 31

2.3 Experimental Evaluation of Hybrid Structures 35

2.3.1 Preparation of the Adherends 35

2.3.2 Application of the Adhesive 36

2.3.3 Testing of the Specimens 37

2.3.4 ExperimentalWorks 38

2.4 Predictive Techniques for Hybrid Structures 41

2.4.1 Analytical 43

2.4.2 Numerical 45

2.4.2.1 Continuum Modeling 45

2.4.2.2 Damage Mechanics 46

2.5 Conclusions 54

List of Abbreviations 55

References 56

3 Friction Spot Joining (FSpJ) 61
SeyedM. Goushegir and Sergio T. Amancio-Filho

3.1 Introduction 61

3.2 Principles of the FSpJ 63

3.2.1 FSpJ Tool 63

3.2.2 FSpJ Equipment 63

3.2.3 FSpJ Process 64

3.2.4 Bonding Mechanisms 69

3.2.5 Process Parameters 71

3.3 Heat Generation During FSpJ Process 74

3.4 Microstructural Zones in FSpJ 75

3.5 Mechanical Properties of FSp Joints 77

3.5.1 Local Mechanical Properties 77

3.5.1.1 Metal (AA2024) 77

3.5.1.2 Composite (Short Glass-Fiber-Reinforced PPS) 79

3.5.2 Quasistatic Global Mechanical Properties 80

3.5.2.1 Influence of Surface Pretreatment 80

3.5.2.2 Influence of Joint Geometry 81

3.5.3 Cyclic Global Mechanical Properties 86

3.6 Comparison Between the Quasistatic Mechanical Performance of FSp and State-of-the-Art Adhesively Bonded Joints 87

3.7 Defects in FSpJ 88

3.8 Advantages, Limitations, and Potential Applications 91

3.9 Final Remarks 94

References 94

4 Induction Welding of Metal/Composite Hybrid Structures 101
Mirja Didi and PeterMitschang

4.1 Introduction 101

4.2 Description of the Principles of the Joining Technique 102

4.2.1 Process Overview 102

4.2.2 Heating Process 103

4.2.2.1 Geometry of the Inductor and the Magnetic Field 105

4.2.2.2 Skin Effect 106

4.2.3 Theory of Adhesion and Influence of the Surface 109

4.2.4 Thermal Degradation 113

4.2.5 Deconsolidation and Consolidation 115

4.2.5.1 Deconsolidation 115

4.2.5.2 Consolidation 116

4.2.6 Cooling 116

4.2.7 Internal Stresses in the Weld Zone 116

4.2.8 Process Variants 117

4.2.8.1 Three-Phase Discontinuous Welding Process 117

4.2.8.2 Spot Welding 119

4.3 Mechanical Performance of Induction Welds in Comparison to Adhesive Bonding 121

4.4 Advantages and Limitations 123

4.5 Applications 123

4.6 Available Equipment and Tools 124

4.7 Further Reading and Additional Literature 124

References 124

5 Direct Joining of Metal and Plastic with Laser 127
Seiji Katayama and Yousuke Kawahito

5.1 Introduction 127

5.2 Direct Joining Procedures of Metal and Plastic with Laser (LAMP Joining Procedure) 128

5.3 Features and Mechanical Properties of Metal–Plastic Laser Joints (LAMP Joints) 131

5.4 Mechanisms of LAMP (Laser-Assisted Metal and Plastic) Direct Joining 135

5.5 Reliability Evaluation Tests 140

5.6 Evolution of LAMP Joining 141

5.7 Conclusions 143

References 143

Part II Joining Processes Based on Mechanical Interlocking 145

6 Principles of Mechanical Fastening in Structural Applications 147
Carlos E. Chaves, Diego J. Inforzato, and Fernando F. Fernandez

6.1 Introduction 147

6.2 General Joint Structural Design 148

6.3 Shear Joints 149

6.3.1 Failure Modes 149

6.3.2 Models for Joint Analysis and Dimensioning 154

6.3.3 Secondary Bending 156

6.3.4 Multiple-Site Damage in Riveted Joints 157

6.3.5 Influence of the Squeezing Force in Riveted Joints 158

6.3.6 Welded and Bonded Shear Joints 159

6.4 Tension Joints 160

6.4.1 Prying Effect 163

6.4.2 Fatigue Behavior of Tension Joints 163

6.4.3 Methods for Estimation of Contact Area and Member’s Stiffness in Tension Joints 164

6.5 Tolerances in Joint Design 165

6.6 Materials 166

6.6.1 Material Properties 167

6.6.2 Corrosion and Protection 171

6.6.3 Material Selection 174

6.7 Fasteners 177

6.7.1 Design Criteria 182

6.8 Summary and Final Remarks 183

References 183

7 Mechanical Fastening of Composite and Composite–Metal Structures 187
Pedro P. Camanho and Giuseppe Catalanotti

7.1 Introduction 187

7.2 SemianalyticalMethod for the Design of Composite Joints 189

7.2.1 Prediction of Net-Tension Failure 189

7.3 Numerical Method for the Design of Composite Joints 193

7.4 Conclusions 199

Acknowledgments 200

References 200

8 Friction Riveting of Polymer–Metal Multimaterial Structures 203
Sergio T. Amancio-Filho and Lucian-Attila Blaga

8.1 Introduction 203

8.2 FricRiveting: Principles of the Technique 205

8.2.1 Joining Equipment and Procedure 206

8.3 FricRiveting: Process Parameters and Variables 206

8.3.1 Process Parameters 207

8.3.2 Process Variables 208

8.4 FricRiveting: Process Phases and Heat Generation 209

8.5 Thermal History 211

8.6 Microstructure 214

8.6.1 MTMAZ 1 220

8.6.2 MTMAZ 2 222

8.7 Physical–Chemical Changes in the Polymeric Material 225

8.8 Mechanical Performance 228

8.8.1 Joint Local Mechanical Properties 228

8.8.2 Joint Global Mechanical Performance 231

8.8.2.1 Tensile Strength 231

8.8.2.2 Lap Shear Strength 235

8.9 Envisaged Applications 241

8.10 Conclusions 241

Acknowledgments 242

References 243

List of Awards and Prizes Received by Works on Fric Riveting 247

9 Staking of Polymer–Metal Hybrid Structures 249
André B. Abibe and Sergio T. Amancio-Filho

9.1 Introduction 249

9.2 Types of Staking Processes 251

9.2.1 Cold Staking 251

9.2.2 Hot Staking 252

9.2.2.1 Thermal Staking 253

9.2.2.2 Hot Air Cold Staking (HACS) 253

9.2.2.3 Infrared and Laser Staking 253

9.2.2.4 Ultrasonic Staking 254

9.2.3 Advanced Staking Processes 254

9.2.3.1 Injection Clinching Joining (ICJ) 255

9.2.3.2 Friction Staking (FricStaking) 256

9.2.3.3 Ultrasonic Upsetting 256

9.2.3.4 Thermoclinching 257

9.3 Characteristics of Staked Joints 257

9.3.1 Joint Formation 257

9.3.2 Microstructure 259

9.3.3 Defects 261

9.3.4 Characterization of Local Properties 262

9.3.4.1 Local Mechanical Properties 262

9.3.4.2 Physicochemical and Structural Properties 263

9.4 Design Considerations for Staked Joints 264

9.4.1 Through-Hole Design 265

9.4.2 Stud Design 266

9.4.3 Stake Head/Forming Tool Design 267

9.5 Mechanical Behavior of Staked Joints 269

9.6 Final Remarks 270

List of Abbreviations 271

References 271

Part III Joining Processes Based on Direct-Assembly Methods 275

10 Injection Overmolding of Polymer–Metal Hybrid Structures 277
Mica Grujicic

10.1 Basics of Polymer–Metal Hybrid Technology 277

10.2 Classification of PMH Technologies 280

10.2.1 Injection Overmolding PMH Technology 280

10.2.2 Metal Overmolding PMH Technology 281

10.2.3 Adhesively Bonded Polymer–Metal Hybrid Structures 282

10.2.4 Direct-Adhesion Polymer–Metal Hybrid Technology 282

10.3 Mechanisms for Polymer/Metal Joining 285

10.3.1 Injection Overmolded PMH Structures 285

10.3.2 Metal Overmolded PMH Structures 285

10.3.3 Adhesively Bonded PMH Structures 285

10.3.4 Direct-Adhesion PMH Structures 286

10.4 Computational Engineering Analyses of PMH Technologies 286

10.4.1 PMH Component Design and Optimization 287

10.4.2 Modeling and Simulations of the Injection-Molding Process 288

10.4.2.1 Optimal Placement and Number of Injection Points 289

10.4.2.2 Mold-Filling Analysis 289

10.4.2.3 Flow-Induced Fiber-Orientation Distribution Analysis 291

10.4.2.4 Mold-Packing Analysis 292

10.4.2.5 In-Mold Stress Analysis 292

10.4.2.6 Micromechanics-Based Derivation of the Effective Material Properties 294

10.4.3 Ejected-Component Shrinkage andWarping Analysis 294

10.4.4 PMH Component Structural Analysis 295

10.5 Compatibility with Automotive BIWManufacturing Process Chain 298

10.6 Concluding Remarks 300

References 300

11 Ultrasonic Joining of Lightweight Alloy/Fiber-Reinforced Polymer Hybrid Structures 307
Eduardo E. Feistauer and Sergio T. Amancio-Filho

11.1 Introduction 307

11.2 MIMStruct Manufacturing Route 309

11.3 U-Joining: Principles of the Process 310

11.3.1 Process Parameters 312

11.3.2 Process Phases 313

11.3.3 Process Variants 315

11.3.4 Potential Applications 315

11.4 Case Study on Ti-6Al-4V/GF-PEI Joints 315

11.4.1 Materials 317

11.4.1.1 MIMStruct Part 317

11.4.1.2 Composite Part 318

11.4.1.3 Joining Procedure 318

11.4.2 Process Temperature 319

11.4.3 Microstructure of the U-Joining Joints 320

11.4.4 Local Mechanical Properties of MIMStruct Part 322

11.4.5 Global Mechanical Properties of the U-Joining Joints 323

11.4.6 Fracture Surface Analysis 326

11.4.7 Conclusions 329

11.5 Advantages and Limitations 329

Acknowledgments 330

References 330

Part IV Design of Experiments and Statistical Analysis in Joining Process Development 335

12 Factorial Design of Experiments for Polymer–Metal Joining 337
Lucian-Attila Blaga, Gonçalo P. Cipriano, Arnaldo R. Gonzalez, and Sergio T. Amancio-Filho

12.1 Introduction 337

12.2 Design of Experiments 337

12.2.1 Factorial Design of Experiments 339

12.2.1.1 General Description 340

12.2.1.2 Analysis of Variance 340

12.2.1.3 Interpretation of Results and Design Validation 341

12.2.2 Examples of Factorial Design of Experiments in Joining Process Development for Metal–Polymer Hybrid Structures 342

12.2.2.1 Case Study 1 – Full-Factorial Design in Friction Riveting 343

12.2.2.2 Case Study 2 – Factorial Design of Experiments in Single-Lap Friction Spot Joints 351

12.3 Final Remarks 361

References 362

13 Taguchi Design and Response Surface Methodology for Polymer–Metal Joining 365
Lucian-Attila Blaga, Gonçalo P. Cipriano, Arnaldo R. Gonzalez, and Sergio T. Amancio-Filho

13.1 Introduction 365

13.2 The Taguchi Design of Experiments 365

13.2.1 General Description 365

13.2.2 Analysis of Variance 368

13.3 Example of Taguchi Design of Experiments in Joining of Metal to Composite Structures 368

13.3.1 Case Study 1 – Taguchi L9 (34) DoE in Double-Lap Friction Spot Joints 368

13.3.1.1 Process Optimization 369

13.3.1.2 Influence of the FSpJ Process Parameters on Joint Mechanical Performance by Taguchi Design of Experiments 370

13.3.1.3 Conclusions of the Case Study 376

13.4 Response Surface Methodology 376

13.4.1 Introduction 376

13.4.2 The Central Composite Design 379

13.4.2.1 General Description 379

13.4.3 The Box–Behnken Design 380

13.4.3.1 General Description 381

13.4.4 Case Study 2 – Central Composite Design in Friction Riveting 381

13.4.4.1 Conclusions of the Case Study 386

13.5 Other Surface Designs 386

13.6 Final Remarks 387

References 387

Index 389