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Joint Ventures Involving Tax-Exempt Organizations: 2016 Cumulative Supplement, 4th Edition

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Joint Ventures Involving Tax-Exempt Organizations: 2016 Cumulative Supplement, 4th Edition

Michael I. Sanders

ISBN: 978-1-118-92849-3 November 2016 144 Pages

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Description

For-profit strategy for the nonprofit world

Joint Ventures Involving Tax-Exempt Organizations provides a detailed examination of the laws, rules, and regulations governing partnerships and joint ventures, with an emphasis on maintaining exempt status. This comprehensive guide has been completely revised and expanded to reflect the most recent legislation, providing readers with a complete, single-volume reference including interpretation and practical guidance. Sample documents allow for easy quick reference, and give readers the opportunity to see how the new laws are applied in real-world scenarios. Readers will learn how careful planning can engage the support of nonprofit and for-profit businesses without threatening an organization's tax-exempt status, and which joint ventures are more likely to produce the desired results for their particular organization.

Joint ventures, partnerships, and alliances, long accepted as good business strategy in the for-profit world, are increasingly being adopted by nonprofits seeking creative means of financing in these difficult economic times. This book is a guide to properly planning and structuring these ventures to the utmost benefit of all entities involved, while maintaining compliance with tax-exemption qualifications.

  • Review the taxation of charitable organization, partnerships, and joint ventures
  • Discover which transactions are best suited to which organizations
  • Learn the different joint venture configurations available to tax-exempt organizations, such as new market tax credit financing
  • Examine the debt restructuring and asset protection issues that can arise

Joint ventures are already working toward the benefit of hospitals, research facilities, universities, charter schools, and low-income housing developments, but careful planning and an appreciation of possible issues are required for successful undertaking. Joint Ventures Involving Tax-Exempt Organizations provides complete information and expert guidance, helping readers acquire the deep understanding critical to these transactions.

Preface xi

Acknowledgments xv

Chapter 1: Introduction: Joint Ventures Involving Exempt Organizations 1

§ 1.4 University Joint Ventures 1

§ 1.5 Low-Income Housing and New Market Tax Credit Joint Ventures 1

§ 1.6 Conservation Joint Ventures 2

§ 1.10 Ancillary Joint Ventures: Rev. Rul. 2004-51 2

§ 1.14 The Exempt Organization as a Lender or Ground Lessor 2

§ 1.15 Partnership Taxation 3

§ 1.17 Use of a Subsidiary as a Participant in a Joint Venture 3

§ 1.24 Other Developments 3

Chapter 2: Taxation of Charitable Organizations 5

§ 2.1 Introduction 5

§ 2.2 Categories of Exempt Organizations 5

§ 2.3 §501(c)(3) Organizations: Statutory Requirements 5

§ 2.6 Application for Exemption 6

§ 2.7 Governance 11

§ 2.8 Form 990: Reporting and Disclosure Requirements 11

§ 2.11 Charitable Contributions 13

Chapter 3: Taxation of Partnerships and Joint Ventures 15

§ 3.3 Classification as a Partnership 15

§ 3.4 Alternatives to Partnerships 15

§ 3.8 Tax Basis in Partnership Interest 16

§ 3.9 Partnership Operations 17

§ 3.11 Sale or Other Disposition of Assets or Interests 17

§ 3.12 Other Tax Issues 18

Chapter 4: Overview: Joint Ventures Involving Exempt Organizations 21

§ 4.2 Exempt Organization as General Partner: A Historical Perspective 21

NEW: § 4.10 Analysis of a Virtual Joint Venture 22

Chapter 5: Private Benefit, Private Inurement, and Excess Benefit Transactions 25

§ 5.1 What Are Private Inurement and Private Benefit? 25

§ 5.2 Transactions in Which Private Benefit or Inurement May Occur 26

§ 5.3 Profit-Making Activities as Indicia of Nonexempt Purpose 27

§ 5.4 Intermediate Sanctions 28

§ 5.7 State Activity with Respect to Insider Transactions 28

Chapter 6: Engaging in a Joint Venture: The Choices 31

§ 6.2 LLCs 31

§ 6.3 Use of a For-Profit Subsidiary as Participant in a Joint Venture 31

§ 6.5 Private Foundations and Program-Related Investments 34

§ 6.6 Nonprofits and Bonds 38

§ 6.7 Exploring Alternative Structures 40

§ 6.8 Other Approaches 40

Chapter 7: Exempt Organizations as Accommodating Parties in Tax Shelter Transactions 43

§ 7.2 Prevention of Abusive Tax Shelters 43

§ 7.3 Excise Taxes and Penalties 44

Chapter 8: The Unrelated Business Income Tax 45

§ 8.1 Introduction 45

§ 8.3 General Rule 46

Chapter 9: Debt-Financed Income 47

§ 9.1 Introduction 47

§ 9.2 Debt-Financed Property 47

Chapter 10: Limitation on Excess Business Holdings 49

§ 10.1 Introduction 49

§ 10.2 Excess Business Holdings: General Rules 49

§ 10.3 Tax Imposed 49

§ 10.4 Exclusions 49

Chapter 12: Healthcare Entities in Joint Ventures 51

§ 12.2 Classifications of Joint Ventures 51

§ 12.3 Tax Analysis 51

§ 12.4 Other Healthcare Industry Issues 52

§ 12.5 Preserving the 50/50 Joint Venture 53

§ 12.9 Government Scrutiny 53

§ 12.11 The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010: §501(r) and Other Statutory Changes Impacting Nonprofit Hospitals 53

§ 12.12 The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010: ACOs and Co-Ops: New Joint Venture Healthcare Entities 57

Chapter 13: Low-Income Housing, New Markets, Rehabilitation, and Other Tax Credit Programs 59

§ 13.3 Low-Income Housing Tax Credit 59

§ 13.4 Historic Investment Tax Credit 60

§ 13.6 New Markets Tax Credits 64

§ 13.10 The Energy Tax Credits 75

Chapter 14: Joint Ventures with Universities 77

§ 14.5 Faculty Participation in Research Joint Ventures 77

§ 14.6 Nonresearch Joint Venture Arrangements 77

§ 14.7 Modes of Participation by Universities in Joint Ventures 78

Chapter 15: Business Leagues Engaged in Joint Ventures 81

§ 15.1 Overview 81

§ 15.2 The Five-Prong Test 82

§ 15.3 Unrelated Business Income Tax 83

Chapter 16: Conservation Organizations in Joint Ventures 85

§ 16.1 Overview 85

§ 16.2 Conservation and Environmental Protection as a Charitable or Educational Purpose: Public and Private Benefit 85

§ 16.3 Conservation Gifts and §170(h) Contributions 87

§ 16.7 Emerging Issues 97

Chapter 17: International Joint Ventures 99

§ 17.11 Application of Foreign Tax Treaties 99

Chapter 19: Debt Restructuring and Asset Protection Issues 101

§ 19.2 Overview of Bankruptcy 101

§ 19.3 The Estate and the Automatic Stay 101

§ 19.5 Chapter 11 Plan 102

Index 103