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$195.99

Kosher Food Production, 2nd Edition

Zushe Yosef Blech

ISBN: 978-0-813-80480-4 March 2009 Wiley-Blackwell 552 Pages

Description

The second edition of Kosher Food Production explores the intricate relationship between modern food production and related Kosher application. Following an introduction to basic Kosher laws, theory and practice, Rabbi Blech details the essential food production procedures required of modern food plants to meet Kosher certification standards. Chapters on Kosher application include ingredient management; rabbinic etiquette; Kosher for Passover; and the industries of fruits and vegetables, baking, biotechnology, dairy, fish, flavor, meat and poultry, oils, fats, and emulsifiers, and food service. New to this edition are chapters covering Kosher application in the candy and confections industries and the snack foods industry. A collection of over 50 informative commodity-specific essays – specifically geared to the secular audience of food scientists – then follows, giving readers insight and understanding of the concerns behind the Kosher laws they are expected to accommodate. Several essays new to the second edition are included. Kosher Food Production, Second Edition serves as an indispensable outline of the issues confronting the application of Kosher law to issues of modern food technology.

Foreword xiii

Acknowledgments xv

Preface to the First Edition xvii

Preface to the Second Edition xxi

Introduction xxiii

1. Kosher Certification: Theory and Application 1

The Purpose of Kosher Certification 1

Theory of Kosher Certification 1

The Kosher Certification Program 3

Restrictions on Raw Materials 4

Restrictions on Production 5

Restrictions on Packaging 6

The Certification Process 8

Choice of Certification 8

Labeling 10

Application 11

Initial Inspection 12

Review of Ingredients and Other Issues Relating to the Certification 13

Contract 14

Inspections 17

Letter of Certification and Labeling Requirements 17

“Dairy” versus “Dairy Equipment” 19

Private Label Agreements 20

M’hadrin Certifications 22

2. Basic Halachic Concepts in Kashrus 25

Food Sources 25

Prohibited Mixtures 26

Milk and Meat— Ba’sar b’Cholov 27

Fish and Meat 28

Bitul (Nullification) 29

B’lios (Absorbed Flavors) 31

B’lios in Foods 31

B’lios in Equipment 32

Practical Applications of the Concept of B’lios 33

B’lios and Utilities 36

Practical Utilities Issues 37

Practical Solutions to Utilities Issues 38

Kosherization (Kashering) of Equipment 41

Libun 41

Libun Chamur 41

Libun Kal 42

Hag’olah 42

Ayno Ben Yomo 42

P’gimah 43

Temperature 43

Bishul Akum 47

Types of Food Subject to Bishul Akum Concerns 48

Types of Cooking Subject to Bishul Akum Concerns 49

Methods of Creating a Bishul Yisroel Status 49

3. Ingredient Management 53

Ingredient Grouping 55

Ingredients Not Requiring a Kosher Certification 56

Ingredients That Require Kosher Verification 57

Non-Kosher Ingredients 58

Ingredient Status 59

Additional Specifications 61

4. Rabbinic Etiquette 65

Shabbos 66

Yom Tov 66

Prayers 68

Shaking Hands 68

Vehicular Travel/Seating 68

Beards and Sidelocks 69

Clothing 69

Yarmulke and Tzitzis 69

Food for the Mashgiach 70

5. Kosher for Passover 71

Passover Ingredient Classification and Terminology 72

Inherently Kosher for Passover 73

Certified Kosher for Passover (Nongrain Based)—Regular Production 74

Certified Kosher for Passover (Nongrain Based)—Special Production 75

Matzah (Unleavened Bread) 76

Gebrokts 77

Matzah A’shirah (Egg Matzah) 77

Kitniyos 78

Chometz 80

Passover Certification and Supervision 80

Jewish-Owned Companies 81

6. Fruit and Vegetables 85

Insect Infestation 85

Israeli Produce 87

Wine and Grape Juice—S’tam Yaynam 89

Fruit and Vegetable Coatings 89

7. The Baking Industry 91

Dairy Bread 91

Ingredient Issues and Kosherization 92

M’zonos (Cake) Bread 95

In-Store Bakeries 95

Challah 96

Supplementary Standards 97

Pas Yisroel 97

Yoshon 99

8. The Biotechnology Industry 101

Fermentation Using Ambient Microflora 101

Fermentation Using Starters from Previous Productions 102

Preparation of Pure Cultures 102

Recovery of Metabolites of Fermentation 104

9. The Dairy Industry 107

Dairy Status 107

Cheese and G’vinas Akum 109

Practical Issues Relating to Dairy Products and Ingredients 110

Fluid Milk 110

Powdered Milk 111

Cream 111

Rennet-Set Cheese 111

Acid-Set Cheese 113

Whey 114

Whey Cream 116

Condensed and Powdered Whey 116

Whey Protein Concentrate 116

Lactose and Minerals 116

Ricotta Cheese and Gjetost 117

Butter, Butter Oil, and Buttermilk 117

Sour Cream and Yogurt 117

Casein and Caseinate 118

Ice Cream 119

Hydrolyzed Casein and Whey 119

Cholov Yisroel —Supervised Milk 119

10. The Fish Industry 123

Kosher Species 123

Identification of Kosher Species 124

Kashrus Issues Relating to Production 125

Ingredient Issues 126

Processing Issues 127

Bishul Akum Issues 129

11. The Flavor Industry 131

Ingredients 131

Kosher Supervision Programs in Flavor Companies 134

12. The Meat and Poultry Industries 137

Kosher Species 137

Kosher Slaughter—Sh’chitah 139

Kosher Meat Inspection and Preparation 141

Inspection of Slaughtered Animals: “Kosher” and “Glatt” 142

Kashering” and Treiboring: Issues Relating to Blood, Gid ha’Nasheh, and Cheylev 143

Organs, Meat Trimmings, Rendered Fat, and Edible Oil 146

Supervision of Kosher Meat and Poultry 147

13. The Oils Fats and Emulsifier Industries 149

Lipid Sources 149

Processing Issues 150

Supervision 154

Additives 154

Emulsifiers 155

Margarine 155

Lipids Used As Incidental Ingredients 157

14. The Food-Service Industries 159

Restaurants 160

Kosher Standards and Nomenclature 161

Supervision 165

Wine, Whisky, and Liqueur 170

Shabbos, Holiday, and Other Halachic Considerations 172

Caterers 174

Segregation of Meat, Milk, and Pareve Productions in the Same Facility 175

Categories of Catering Services 175

Renting Additional Equipment 177

Equipment Kashering Issues 177

Shabbos 178

Hospitals and Long-Term Care Facilities 182

Prepared Kosher Meals 182

Kosher Food-Service Systems 183

15. The Candy and Confection Industries 185

Ingredient Issues 185

Sugar and Sweeteners 185

Gelatin 189

Food Colors 190

Glazes 191

Production 191

Boiled Candies 191

Starch-Molded Candies 192

Chocolate 193

Chocolate Liquor, Cocoa Butter, and Cocoa 193

Other Fats and Emulsifiers 193

Dairy Ingredients 194

Equipment and Kosherization 194

Recirculating Hot-Water Systems 196

Marshmallows 196

Licorice and Sour Sticks 197

Gum 197

Powdered and Compressed Candies 198

16. The Snack Food Industry 199

General Issues 199

Bishul Akum 200

Dairy versus Pareve 201

Cholov Yisroel 201

Yoshon 201

Potato Chips 201

Fryers 202

Seasonings 202

Extruded Chips 203

Bishul Akum 204

Passover 204

French Fries as a Snack Food 204

Pretzels 205

Extruded Puffed Products 205

Rice Cakes 206

Popcorn 206

Corn and Tortilla Chips 206

Pita and Bagel Chips 207

Granola and Granola Bars 207

Nuts 207

Dried Fruit 209

17. Essays in Kashrus and Food Science 211

Introduction 211

The Story of Bishul Akum 212

The Story of Bread 219

The Story of Butter 227

The Story of Candy 230

The Story of Canning 234

The Story of Cheese and Casein 239

The Story of Chewing Gum 249

The Story of Chocolate 253

The Story of Coffee 258

The Story of Colors 262

The Story of Condiments 270

The Story of Eggs 276

The Story of Emulsifiers 283

The Story of Enzymes 288

The Story of Essential Oils 296

The Story of Fat and Fat Replacers 299

The Story of Fish 302

The Story of Food from the Tree 309

The Story of Fruit 313

The Story of Gelatin 317

The Story of Honey and Royal Jelly 323

The Story of Ice Cream 330

The Story of Imitation Foods 334

The Story of Infant Formula 339

The Story of Insect Infestation 342

The Story of Juices 353

The Story of Kitniyos 357

The Story of Kosher Meat 363

The Story of Kosher Poultry 370

The Story of L-Cysteine 374

The Story of Margarine 379

The Story of Matzah (Unleavened Bread) 383

The Story of Minerals 390

The Story of Mushrooms 393

The Story of Noodles 397

The Story of Nuts 401

The Story of Olives 405

The Story of Potatoes 409

The Story of Preservatives 415

The Story of Release Agents 420

The Story of Spices 426

The Story of Starch 430

The Story of Steam 433

The Story of Sugar and Sugar Alcohols 437

The Story of Sugar Replacers 443

The Story of Tea 450

The Story of Tuna 453

The Story of Vinegar 461

The Story of Vitamins 466

The Story of Whey 471

The Story of Wine, Beer, and Alcohol 477

Kashrus Glossary for the Food Technologist 487

Index 499

· Everything about Kosher in one book – the industry standard

· Fills the void in scientific and technical literature where only popular works existed

· New chapters on snack foods, the confection industry, and more

· Over 50 essays on Kashrus and Food Science