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LED Packaging for Lighting Applications: Design, Manufacturing, and Testing



LED Packaging for Lighting Applications: Design, Manufacturing, and Testing

Sheng Liu, Xiaobing Luo

ISBN: 978-0-470-82840-3 July 2011 320 Pages

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Since the first light-emitting diode (LED) was invented by Holonyak and Bevacqua in 1962, LEDs have made remarkable progress in the past few decades with the rapid development of epitaxy growth, chip design and manufacture, packaging structure, processes, and packaging materials. LEDs have superior characteristics such as high efficiency, small size, long life, low power consumption, and high reliability. The market for white LED is growing rapidly in various applications. It has been widely accepted that white LEDs will be the fourth illumination source to substitute the incandescent, fluorescent, and high-pressure sodium lamps. With the development of LED chip and packaging technologies, the efficiency of high power white LED will broaden the application markets of LEDs while changing the lighting concepts of our lives.

In LED Packaging for Lighting Applications, Professors Liu and Luo cover the full spectrum of design, manufacturing, and testing. Many concepts are proposed for the first time, and readers will benefit from the concurrent engineering and co-design approaches to advanced engineering design of LED products.

  • One of the only books to cover LEDs from package design to manufacturing to testing
  • Focuses on the design of LED packaging and its applications such as road lights
  • Includes design methods and experiences necessary for LED engineers, especially optical and thermal design
  • Introduces novel LED packaging structures and manufacturing processes, such as ASLP
  • Covers reliability considerations, the most challenging problem for the LED industry
  • Provides measurement and testing standards, which are critical for LED development, for both LED and LED fixtures
  • Codes and demonstrations available from the book’s Companion Website

This book is ideal for practicing engineers working in design or packaging at LED companies and graduate students preparing for work in industry. This book also provides a helpful introduction for advanced undergraduates, graduates, researchers, lighting designers, and product managers interested in the fundamentals of LED design and production.

Color version of selected figures can be found at

Related Resources

Foreword (Magnus George Craford).

Foreword (C. P. Wong).

Foreword (B. J. Lee).



About the Authors.

1 Introduction.

1.1 Historical Evolution of Lighting Technology.

1.2 Development of LEDs.

1.3 Basic Physics of LEDs.

1.3.1 Materials.

1.3.2 Electrical and Optical Properties.

1.3.3 Mechanical and Thermal Properties.

1.4 Industrial Chain of LED.

1.4.1 LED Upstream Industry.

1.4.2 LED Midstream Industry.

1.4.3 LED Downstream Industry.

1.5 Summary.


2 Fundamentals and Development Trends of High Power LED Packaging.

2.1 Brief Introduction to Electronic Packaging.

2.1.1 About Electronic Packaging and Its Evolution.

2.1.2 Wafer Level Packaging, More than Moore, and SiP.

2.2 LED Chips.

2.2.1 Current Spreading Efficiency.

2.2.2 Internal Quantum Efficiency.

2.2.3 High Light Extraction Efficiency.

2.3 Types and Functions of LED Packaging.

2.3.1 Low Power LED Packaging.

2.3.2 High Power LED Packaging.

2.4 Key Factors and System Design of High Power LED Packaging.

2.5 Development Trends and Roadmap.

2.5.1 Technology Needs.

2.5.2 Packaging Types.

2.6 Summary.


3 Optical Design of High Power LED Packaging Module.

3.1 Properties of LED Light.

3.1.1 Light Frequency and Wavelength.

3.1.2 Spectral Distribution.

3.1.3 Flux of Light.

3.1.4 Lumen Efficiency.

3.1.5 Luminous Intensity, Illuminance and Luminance.

3.1.6 Color Temperature, Correlated Color Temperature and Color Rendering Index.

3.1.7 White Light LED.

3.2 Key Components and Packaging Processes for Optical Design.

3.2.1 Chip Types and Bonding Process.

3.2.2 Phosphor Materials and Phosphor Coating Processes.

3.2.3 Lens and Molding Process.

3.3 Light Extraction.

3.4 Optical Modeling and Simulation.

3.4.1 Chip Modeling.

3.4.2 Phosphor Modeling.

3.5 Phosphor for White LED Packaging.

3.5.1 Phosphor Location for White LED Packaging.

3.5.2 Phosphor Thickness and Concentration for White LED Packaging.

3.5.3 Phosphor for Spatial Color Distribution.

3.6 Collaborative Design.

3.6.1 Co-design of Surface Micro-Structures of LED Chips and Packages.

3.6.2 Application Specific LED Packages.

3.7 Summary.


4 Thermal Management of High Power LED Packaging Module.

4.1 Basic Concepts of Heat Transfer.

4.1.1 Conduction Heat Transfer.

4.1.2 Convection Heat Transfer.

4.1.3 Thermal Radiation.

4.1.4 Thermal Resistance.

4.2 Thermal Resistance Analysis of Typical LED Packaging.

4.3 Various LED Packages for Decreasing Thermal Resistance.

4.3.1 Development of LED Packaging.

4.3.2 Thermal Resistance Decrease for LED Packaging.

4.3.3 SiP/COB LED Chip Packaging Process.

4.4 Summary.


5 Reliability Engineering of High Power LED Packaging.

5.1 Concept of Design for Reliability (DfR) and Reliability Engineering.

5.1.1 Fundamentals of Reliability.

5.1.2 Life Distribution.

5.1.3 Accelerated Models.

5.1.4 Applied Mechanics.

5.2 High Power LED Packaging Reliability Test.

5.2.1 Traditional Testing Standards, Methods, and Evaluation.

5.2.2 Methods for Failure Mechanism Analysis.

5.2.3 Failure Mechanisms Analysis.

5.3 Rapid Reliability Evaluation.

5.3.1 Material Property Database.

5.3.2 Numerical Modeling and Simulation.

5.4 Summary.


6 Design of LED Packaging Applications.

6.1 Optical Design.

6.1.1 Introduction of Light Control.

6.1.2 Reflectors.

6.1.3 Lenses.

6.1.4 Diffuser.

6.1.5 Color Design and Control in LED Applications.

6.2 Thermal Management.

6.2.1 Analysis of System Thermal Resistance.

6.2.2 Types of Heat Dissipation to Environment.

6.2.3 Design and Optimization of Fin Heat Sink.

6.2.4 Design Examples of Thermal Management of Typical LED Lighting Systems.

6.3 Drive Circuit and Intelligent Control Design.

6.3.1 Typical LED Wireless Intelligent Control System.

6.3.2 Working Principles of Wireless Intelligent Control System.

6.4 Summary.


7 LED Measurement and Standards.

7.1 Review of Measurement for LED Light Source.

7.2 Luminous Flux and Radiant Flux.

7.3 Measurement for Luminous Intensity.

7.4 LED Chromaticity Coordinate.

7.5 Dominant Wavelength Determination Algorithm.

7.5.1 Curve Fitting Method.

7.6 LED Color Purity.

7.7 Color Temperature and Correlated Color Temperature of Light Source.

7.8 Automatic Sorting for LEDs.

7.9 Measurement for LED Road Lights.

7.9.1 Electrical Characteristics.

7.9.2 Color Characteristics.

7.9.3 Light Distribution Characteristics.

7.9.4 Dynamic Characteristics.

7.9.5 Test of Reliability.

7.10 Summary.


Appendix: Measurement Method for Integral LED Road Lights Approved by China Solid State Lighting Alliance.


"The book will be useful as a resource for engineers in LED design or packaging, and as an introduction to the field for advanced students, researchers, lighting designers, and product managers." (Book News, 1 October 2011)