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LTE Backhaul: Planning and Optimization

LTE Backhaul: Planning and Optimization

Esa Metsälä (Editor), Juha Salmelin (Editor)

ISBN: 978-1-118-92465-5 September 2015 312 Pages

Description

The aim of this book is to enable network planners to realize and maintain cost efficient LTE backhaul networks, which meet the necessary performance requirements. Through an introduction to the technology background, the economical modelling, the dimensioning theory, planning and optimization processes and relevant network management aspects, the reader shall obtain all relevant information to achieve good backhaul results in their own network environment.  It is aimed at network planners and other experts with responsibilities for LTE IP network dimensioning, LTE network planning, providing and managing leased lines, business management, LTE IP network operation and optimization. 

List of Contributors xi

Foreword xiii

Acknowledgments xv

List of Abbreviations xvii

1 Introduction 1
Esa Markus Metsälä and Juha T.T. Salmelin

1.1 To the reader 1

1.2 Content 2

1.3 Scope 2

Reference 2

2 LTE Backhaul 3
Gerald Bedürftig, Jouko Kapanen, Esa Markus Metsälä and Juha T.T. Salmelin

2.1 Introduction 3

2.2 LTE Backhaul Planes 5

2.2.1 3GPP Planes and Protocol Stacks 5

2.2.2 Synchronization Plane 7

2.2.3 Management Plane 9

2.2.4 Active Monitoring Plane 9

2.2.5 Security Control Plane 10

2.2.6 Control and User Plane of Additional Proprietary Applications 10

2.3 Radio Features of LTE and LTE‐A 11

2.3.1 LTE 11

2.3.2 LTE‐A 12

2.4 R equirements for LTE Backhaul (SLAs) 17

2.4.1 Capacity 17

2.4.2 Latency and Loss 18

2.4.3 QoS Capabilities 21

2.4.4 Synchronization 21

2.4.5 Availability 22

2.4.6 Security 22

2.4.7 Examples 23

2.5 Transport Services 26

2.6 Planning Problems 27

2.7 LTE Backhaul Technologies 29

2.7.1 Access 30

2.7.2 Aggregation and Backbone Network 34

2.8 Small Cell Backhaul 34

2.9 Future Radio Features Affecting Backhaul 35

2.9.1 Inter NodeB CoMP (eCoMP) 35

2.9.2 Dual Connectivity 36

2.9.3 Dynamic eICIC 38

2.10 R elated Standards and Industry Forums 39

2.10.1 3GPP 39

2.10.2 ITU‐T SG15 40

2.10.3 IEEE 802 40

2.10.4 IETF 40

2.10.5 MEF 40

2.10.6 NGMN 41

2.10.7 BBF 41

2.10.8 SCF 41

2.11 Operator Example 42

References 42

3 Economic Modeling and Strategic Input for Lte Backhaul 45
Gabriel Waller and Esa Markus Metsälä

3.1 Introduction 45

3.1.1 Role of Backhaul Within Lte 46

3.1.2 Why and What to Model 48

3.2 Strategic Input for Planning 49

3.2.1 Physical infrastructure 49

3.2.2 Transmission media 50

3.2.3 Capacity and interfaces 50

3.2.4 Network technologies 51

3.2.5 Network topology 51

3.2.6 Make or buy 51

3.2.7 Backhaul security aspects 52

3.3 Quantifying benefits 53

3.3.1 Revenue from LTE backhaul 53

3.3.2 Contribution to mobile service revenue 54

3.3.3 Cost savings 54

3.4 Quantifying costs 55

3.4.1 Equipment purchases 55

3.4.2 Economic lifetime 55

3.4.3 Operational costs 56

3.4.4 Other costs 57

3.5 Case router 58

3.5.1 Cash Flow 58

3.5.2 Payback Period 59

3.5.3 Net Present Value (NPV) 61

3.5.4 Selection of the Interest Rate 63

3.5.5 Internal Rate of Return 64

3.5.6 Return on Investment and Further Metrics 64

3.6 Wireless Backhaul Case Study 66

3.6.1 Case Definition 66

3.6.2 Payback Period 68

3.6.3 NPV 69

References 70

Further Reading 71

4 Dimensioning Aspects and Analytical Models of LTE MBH Networks 73
Csaba Vulkán and Juha T.T. Salmelin

4.1 Introduction 73

4.2 Dimensioning Paradigm 76

4.3 Applications and QoE: Considerations 78

4.3.1 Transmission Control Protocol 79

4.3.2 Web Browsing 83

4.3.3 Video Download 85

4.4 Dimensioning Requirements 87

4.5 Traffic Models 88

4.5.1 Peak Load or Busy Hour Load 92

4.5.2 Geographic Diversity and Daily Load Profile/Distribution 93

4.5.3 Session Level User Behavior 95

4.5.4 Burst Level User Behavior 99

4.5.5 Packet Level Behavior 102

4.5.6 Transmission Control Protocol Models 106

4.6 Network models 112

4.6.1 Queuing methods 113

4.6.2 Fluid Network Models 117

4.6.3 Network model 118

4.6.4 Routing and Requirement Allocations 119

4.7 Dimensioning 122

4.7.1 QoS‐driven dimensioning 122

4.7.2 Reliability Requirement Based Dimensioning 124

References 127

5 Planning and Optimizing Mobile Backhaul for LTE 129
Raija Lilius, Jari Salo, José Manuel Tapia Pérez and Esa Markus Metsälä

5.1 Introduction 129

5.1.1 Planning and Optimization Process 130

5.1.2 High‐Level Design Overview 131

5.2 Backhaul Network Deployment Scenarios 132

5.2.1 Connectivity Requirements 132

5.2.2 Differences Between Ethernet and IP Connectivity 133

5.2.3 Implications to Backhaul Scenarios 134

5.2.4 Ethernet Services 134

5.2.5 L3 VPN Service 136

5.2.6 Scenario 1: IP Access 137

5.2.7 Scenario 2: Ethernet Service in the Access 137

5.3 Network Topology and Transport Media 138

5.3.1 Access Network Topologies and Media 138

5.3.2 Aggregation Network Topologies 139

5.4 Availability and Resiliency Schemes 139

5.4.1 Availability Calculation 140

5.4.2 Link Resiliency and its Impact on Availability 141

5.4.3 Routing Gateway Redundancy 144

5.4.4 Ethernet Ring Protection (ERP) 147

5.4.5 IP and MPLS Rerouting 148

5.4.6 SCTP Multi‐Homing 149

5.4.7 Connectivity Toward Multiple S‐GWs and MMEs 149

5.4.8 Synchronization Protection 150

5.4.9 OSS Resiliency 150

5.4.10 End‐to‐End Performance of Multilayer Redundancy 151

5.5 QoS Planning 152

5.5.1 QoS in an Access Transport Node 152

5.5.2 Packet Classification 153

5.5.3 Scheduling 156

5.5.4 Traffic Shaping 158

5.5.5 Active Queue Management and Bufferbloat 160

5.5.6 Connection Admission Control 161

5.6 Link Bandwidth Dimensioning 163

5.6.1 Obtaining Input Parameters for User Plane Bandwidth Dimensioning 164

5.6.2 Obtaining Input Parameters for Control Plane Bandwidth Dimensioning 169

5.6.3 Link Bandwidth Dimensioning: Single Queue 172

5.6.4 Link Bandwidth Dimensioning: Multiple Queues 180

5.6.5 Combining Signaling, Voice and Data Traffic 183

5.6.6 Comparison of Bandwidth Dimensioning Formulas 186

5.7 Dimensioning Other Traffic Types 187

5.7.1 Management Traffic 187

5.7.2 Synchronization Traffic 187

5.7.3 Other Traffic Types 188

5.8 Base Station Site Solutions 188

5.9 Security Solutions 189

5.9.1 Network Element Hardening 190

5.9.2 Network Security High‐Level Architecture 190

5.9.3 Security Gateway High Availability 192

5.9.4 IPsec Parameter Planning 196

5.9.5 Public Key Infrastructure (PKI) 201

5.9.6 Self‐Organizing Networks (SONs) and Security 203

5.10 IP Planning 203

5.10.1 IP Addressing Alternatives for eNB 204

5.10.2 VLAN Planning 206

5.10.3 IP Addressing 208

5.10.4 Dynamic Versus Static Routing 211

5.10.5 Examples 211

5.11 Synchronization Planning 214

5.11.1 Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) 215

5.11.2 Synchronous Ethernet (SyncE) 215

5.11.3 IEEE1588 (2008) Frequency Synchronization 218

5.11.4 IEEE1588 (2008) Phase Synchronization 222

5.12 Self‐Organizing Networks (SON) and Management System Connectivity 226

5.12.1 Planning for SON 226

5.12.2 Data Communications Network (DCN) Planning for Transport Network and the Base Stations 227

5.13 LTE Backhaul Optimization 227

5.13.1 Introduction to LTE Backhaul Optimization 227

5.13.2 Proactive Methods 228

5.13.3 Reactive Methods 231

5.13.4 Active vs. Passive Methods 232

References 236

6 Design Examples 239
Jari Salo and Esa Markus Metsälä

6.1 Introduction 239

6.2 Scenario #1: Microwave 239

6.2.1 Synchronization 240

6.2.2 IP Planning 242

6.2.3 Availability 245

6.3 Scenario #2: Leased Line 254

6.3.1 Assumptions for the Use Case 254

6.3.2 Comparing Transport Providers 254

6.3.3 The Solution Summary 258

Reference 258

7 Network Management 259
Raimo Kangas and Esa Markus Metsälä

7.1 Introduction 259

7.2 NMS Architecture 260

7.3 Fault Management 262

7.4 Performance Management 263

7.5 Configuration Management (CM) 263

7.5.1 Maintaining an Up‐to‐Date Picture of the Network 264

7.5.2 Configuration History 264

7.5.3 Configuring Network 265

7.5.4 Policy‐Based Configuration Management 265

7.5.5 Planning Interfaces 266

7.5.6 Network Configuration Discovery 267

7.5.7 Configuration Management of Backhaul Network 267

7.6 Optimization 268

7.7 Self‐Organizing Network (SON) 270

7.8 O&M Protocols 272

7.8.1 SNMP 273

7.8.2 NETCONF 275

7.9 Planning of Network Management System 275

7.9.1 Strategic Planning 276

7.9.2 Analysis 276

7.9.3 Design 277

7.9.4 Implementation 278

7.9.5 Maintenance 278

References 278

8 Summary 279
Esa Markus Metsälä and Juha T.T. Salmelin

Index 281