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Land, Development and Design, 2nd Edition

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Land, Development and Design, 2nd Edition

Paul Syms

ISBN: 978-1-444-32868-4 August 2010 Wiley-Blackwell 360 Pages

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Description

Development of brownfield land can address shortfalls in the availability of land for housing and other buildings, but these sites present a range of problems that must be overcome in any successful development.

Land, Development and Design addresses all of the issues in the context of the reuse of urban land, providing a solid, readable overview of the principles and practice of the regeneration of brownfield sites. Divided into four parts, covering the development process and planning policies; site assessment, risk analysis and remediation of contaminated land; development issues and finally design issues, the principal focus of the book is on the reuse of urban land. It includes a full discussion of contaminated land, so that readers are aware of the issues and options available to resolve this problem.

Land, Development and Design has been extensively revised since its first edition and provides final year undergraduate and postgraduate students of both planning and surveying, as well as professional planners, surveyors and developers, a solid and readable overview of the principles and practice of regeneration of the built environment.

 

Author Biography x

Preface to First Edition xi

Preface to Second Edition xiv

Part One Planning and Development 1

1 The Development Process 3

1.1 Introduction 3

1.2 The phases of redevelopment 6

Preparation 6

1.2.1 Phase 1 – Project inception 6

1.2.2 Phase 2 – Feasibility assessment 7

1.2.3 Phase 3 – Site assessment 8

Options 9

1.2.4 Phase 4 – Options assessment 9

1.2.5 Phase 5 – Working design of the preferred option 10

Design 12

1.2.6 Phase 6 – Detailed design 12

1.2.7 Phase 7 – Regulatory and planning 13

1.2.8 Phase 8 – Legal, property and funding 14

Delivery 15

1.2.9 Phase 9 – Financial appraisal 15

1.2.10 Phase 10 – Works procurement and execution 18

1.2.11 Phase 11 – Sales and marketing 19

1.3 The 2008–9 ‘credit crunch’ and its impact on property markets 20

1.4 Summary 21

2 Planning Policies and Development 23

2.1 Introduction 23

2.2 Planning policy statements and guidance notes 24

2.3 The Urban task force and the urban white paper 27

2.4 Urban land-use policies and the national brownfield strategy for England 30

2.5 The housing green paper and land for housing 39

2.6 The london brownfield sites review 41

2.7 Summary 43

2.8 Checklist 44

3 Project Inception, Developers and Feasibility 45

3.1 Introduction 45

3.2 Recession and property values 46

3.3 Land for development 49

3.3.1 Residential development 51

3.3.2 Commercial development 52

3.4 Assessing the market potential 54

3.4.1 Market research 56

3.4.2 Using the tools to assess market potential 59

3.5 Forecasting rents and prices 63

3.6 Summary 64

3.7 Checklist 65

Part Two Land 73

4 Site Assembly, Investigation and Assessment 75

4.1 Introduction 75

4.2 Site assembly 78

4.3 The historical study 79

4.3.1 A practical example 82

4.3.2 Maps, scales and other sources of information 93

4.3.3 Reporting the historical study 95

4.4 Walk-over survey 96

4.5 Intrusive and other forms of site investigation 101

4.5.1 Sampling strategies 103

4.5.2 Laboratory analysis 107

4.6 The final report 108

4.7 Summary 111

4.8 Checklist 111

5 Environment and Ecological Considerations 112

5.1 Introduction 112

5.2 Natural colonisation of brownfield land 112

5.3 Environmental assessment 115

5.4 The importance of landscape 117

5.5 Soils and substrates: the platform for development 118

5.6 Biodiversity of previously developed land 121

5.7 Policy and legislative framework for biodiversity conservation 123

5.8 Ecological surveys and the formation of new habitats 125

5.9 Land and development in a changing climate 129

5.10 The response to climate change 131

5.11 Summary 135

5.12 Checklist 135

6 Heritage and Archaeology 137

6.1 Introduction 137

6.2 Conservation policies and guidance 137

6.3 Planning and the historic environment 141

6.4 Archaeology and redevelopment 143

6.5 Summary 144

6.6 Checklist 144

7 Community Involvement in Tackling Blight and Dereliction 146

7.1 Introduction 146

7.2 Economic and visual blight 146

7.3 The benefits of removing blight 149

7.4 Skills 158

7.5 Summary 160

7.6 Checklist 160

8 Contaminated Soil and Remediation Methods 162

8.1 Introduction 162

8.2 European Directives and UK legislation 163

8.3 Removal and containment 167

8.4 In situ and ex situ treatments 169

8.5 The costs of dealing with contamination and dereliction 173

8.6 Tackling small sites 175

8.7 Land with no development value 177

8.8 Summary 179

8.9 Checklist 179

Part Three Development 181

9 Valuation of Damaged and Restored Land 183

9.1 Introduction 183

9.2 Valuation approaches 184

9.3 ‘Stigma’ or taking account of ‘intangibles’ 188

9.4 Applying valuation theories in practice 195

9.5 Reporting contamination and other damage to land 199

9.6 Summary 200

9.7 Checklist 201

10 Urban Extensions, Infrastructure and Eco-towns 202

10.1 Introduction 202

10.2 Sustainable urban extensions 204

10.3 Infrastructure 205

10.4 Eco-towns 209

10.5 Summary 214

10.6 Checklist 214

11 Development Finance 215

11.1 Introduction 215

11.2 Financial appraisals 216

11.2.1 Institutional leases and investment yields 217

11.2.2 Viability of the project 218

11.3 Financing a new development 219

11.3.1 Creditworthiness 219

11.3.2 Costs of finance 220

11.4 Types of finance 221

11.4.1 Debt financing 221

11.4.2 Equity financing 223

11.4.3 Mezzanine finance 223

11.5 Joint ventures and Special Purpose Vehicles 224

11.6 Forward sales and rental guarantees 225

11.7 Public-sector finance 226

11.8 Summary 228

11.9 Checklist 229

Part Four Design 231

12 Public Realm and Managing Land for Public Benefit 233

12.1 Introduction 233

12.2 Planning for quality public spaces 234

12.2.1 Design and upkeep of buildings and spaces 237

12.2.2 Green space and green infrastructure 237

12.2.3 Treatment of historic buildings and places 238

12.2.4 World-class Places – Action Plan 239

12.3 Urban and rural waterfronts as public spaces 242

12.4 The economic value of urban design 244

12.5 Summary 251

12.6 Checklist 251

13 Designing out Crime 252

13.1 Introduction 252

13.2 The basis for crime preventative design 252

13.3 The role of the local authority in promoting design-based approaches to reducing crime 253

13.4 Advice on crime preventative design: an outline of UK guidance 255

13.5 Case studies in crime preventative design 257

13.5.1 Wharf Close, Manchester 258

13.5.2 Residential development and car park, Sale 262

13.5.3 Comparisons between the case studies 266

13.6 New developments and crime 267

13.7 Summary 269

13.8 Checklist 269

14 Design Standards for Residential and Commercial Developments 271

14.1 Introduction 271

14.2 Urban design, smart growth and new urbanism 271

14.3 Design codes 275

14.4 Modern methods of construction (MMC) and zero-carbon homes 280

14.4.1 Modern methods of construction 280

14.4.2 Zero-carbon homes 281

14.5 Development densities and the Code for Sustainable Homes 282

14.5.1 Development densities 282

14.5.2 Code for Sustainable Homes 284

14.5.3 Lifetime homes 287

14.6 Achieving quality in commercial development 290

14.6.1 BRE Environmental Assessment Method (BREEAM) 290

14.6.2 Design Quality Indicator (DQI) 290

14.7 Summary 291

14.8 Checklist 291

15 Planning for the Future 293

15.1 Introduction 293

15.2 Planning and development 295

15.3 Land 296

15.4 Development 297

15.5 Design 299

15.6 Conclusion 300

References 302

Further Reading 317

Web Links 319

Index 321

  • Remains one of the few texts to look at development of brownfield sites
  • UK government remains committed to development on brownfield land with an estimated 4 million new homes needed in England by 2026
  • Covers all types of development, not just residential
  • Highly practical and draws on author's consultancy work on contaminated land