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Landscape Architectural Research: Inquiry, Strategy, Design

Paperback

$70.00

Landscape Architectural Research: Inquiry, Strategy, Design

M. Elen Deming, Simon Swaffield

ISBN: 978-0-470-56417-2 April 2011 272 Pages

Description

A practical, single-source guide tosuccessful strategies for landscape architecture research

As the scope of landscape architecture expands to engage with other disciplines, and streams of information directing this field continue to grow and diversify, it becomes increasingly important for landscape architects to be able to implement a range of effective research strategies when seeking, creating, and validating knowledge. Landscape Architecture Research offers a framework for advancing better design thinking solutions by supplying readers with a system of inquiry tactics that open up a wider range of research possibilities. With a logical and innovative approach that favors legitimacy of knowledge based on collective, grounded practices, rather than strict adherence to protocols drawn only from scientific models, this comprehensive, illustrated guide produces a sound argument for establishing a new paradigm for legitimizing research quality. Landscape Architecture Research presents:

  • Case studies that show how the range of presented research strategies have been successfully used in practice

  • New perspective on the relationship between theory, research, practice, and critique, a relationship that is specific to landscape architecture

  • Detailed coverage of the ways that new knowledge is produced through research activities and practical innovations in landscape architecture

The first and only book on this topic of growing importance in landscape architecture, Landscape Architecture Research keeps professionals and students in step with the latest developments in landscape architecture, and delivers a dynamic and flexible game plan for verifying the integrity of their work.

Preface xi

Acknowledgments xiii

Chapter 1 Introduction 1

1.1 Knowledge in Landscape Architecture 1

1.2 The Need for a Guide 2

1.3 The Gatekeeping Dilemma in Context 4

1.4 Mapping the Terrain 7

1.5 Building a Research-Based Discipline 13

References 15

Chapter 2 Knowing Landscape Architecture 17

2.1 Introduction 17

2.2 The Nature of Professional Disciplines 17

2.3 Domains of Knowledge in Landscape Architecture 20

2.4 Research Needs 26

References 29

Chapter 3 Theory/Research/Scholarship/Critique 30

3.1 Introduction 30

3.2 Competing Ideals of Theory 31

3.3 Representing Theory 34

3.4 Theoretical Conversations 35

3.5 Research and Scholarship 37

3.6 Studio Design as a Research Setting 40

3.7 Theory and Critique 42

3.8 Conclusion 43

References 44

Chapter 4 Integrating Design and Research 48

4.1 Introduction 48

4.2 Problems and Purpose 48

4.3 Framing a Research Question 52

4.4 Degrees of Research 53

4.5 Assessing Research Quality 56

4.6 A Developmental Heuristic 58

References 63

Chapter 5 Descriptive Strategies 65

5.1 Introduction 65

5.2 Observation 66

5.3 Secondary Description 71

5.4 Descriptive Social Surveys 72

5.5 Complex Description 77

5.6 Descriptive Case Studies 79

Descriptive Strategies: Summary 85

References 85

Chapter 6 Modeling and Correlational Strategies 87

6.1 Introduction 87

6.2 Descriptive/Synthetic Models 89

6.3 Analytical Models and Correlation 90

6.4 Simple Correlation 93

6.5 Multiple Correlations 96

6.6 Spatial Correlations 98

6.7 Predictive Modeling 101

6.8 Dynamic Simulation Modeling 103

Modeling Strategies: Summary 110

References 112

Chapter 7 Experimental Strategies 114

7.1 Introduction 114

7.2 Classic Experiments 116

7.3 Field Experiments 119

7.4 Quasi Experiments 119

7.5 The Metaphor of Experimentation 122

Experimental Strategies: Summary 124

References 124

Chapter 8 Classification Schemes 126

8.1 Introduction 126

8.2 Collection/Inventory/Catalogue 128

8.3 Typology 133

8.4 Taxonomy 136

8.5 Index 140

8.6 Bibliography and Literature Review 144

Classification Strategies: Summary 149

References 149

Chapter 9 Interpretive Strategies 152

9.1 Introduction 152

9.2 Ethnography 153

9.3 Discourse Analysis 161

9.4 Iconology and Iconography 164

9.5 Historiography 165

Interpretive Strategies: Summary 169

References 172

Chapter 10 Evaluation and Diagnosis 174

10.1 Introduction 174

10.2 Parameters, Norms, and Rubrics 175

10.3 Design Evaluation 179

10.4 Diagnostics 181

10.5 Landscape Assessment 184

Evaluation and Diagnosis Strategies: Summary 187

References 190

Chapter 11 Engaged Action Research 192

11.1 Introduction 192

11.2 Action Dimensions in Pedagogical Research 194

11.3 Participatory Design in Service Learning 197

11.4 Participatory Action Research (PAR) 200

11.5 Transdisciplinary Action Research (TDAR) 202

Engaged Action Research Strategies: Summary 203

References 204

Chapter 12 Projective Design 205

12.1 Design as Research 205

12.2 Design Operations 209

12.3 Design Interpretations 215

12.4 Design Reflections 217

Projective Design Strategies: Summary 221

References 221

Chapter 13 Logical Systems (Axioms, Rules, and Argumentation) 223

13.1 Introduction 223

13.2 Logical Relationships 224

13.3 Synthetic Logic 227

13.4 Expanded Field Analysis 228

13.5 Spatial Syntax as Logical System 229

13.6 Pattern Language 231

Logical Systems: Summary 234

References 235

Chapter 14 Research and Practice 237

14.1 Introduction 237

14.2 Integrating Research Strategies into Practice—Evidence-Based Design 239

14.3 Integrating Research into Practice—Polemical Transformation 240

14.4 Integrating Knowledge into Practice—Grassroots Movements 241

14.5 Organizing Practice-Based Research 242

14.6 Reprise 246

References 247

Index 249