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Large and Middle-scale Aperture Aspheric Surfaces: Lapping, Polishing and Measurement

Large and Middle-scale Aperture Aspheric Surfaces: Lapping, Polishing and Measurement

Shengyi Li, Yifan Dai

ISBN: 978-1-118-53754-1

Jan 2017

608 pages

$140.99

Description

A complete all-in-one reference to aspheric fabrication and testing for optical applications

This book provides a detailed introduction to the manufacturing and measurement technologies in aspheric fabrication. For each technology, both basic theory and practical applications are introduced.

The book consists of two parts. In the first part, the basic principles of manufacturing technology for aspheric surfaces and key theory for deterministic subaperture polishing of aspheric surfaces are discussed. Then key techniques for high precision figuring such as CCOS with small polishing pad, IBF and MRF, are introduced, including the basic principles, theories and applications, mathematical modeling methods, machine design and process parameter selection.  It also includes engineering practices and experimental results, based on the three kinds of polishing tools (CCOS, IBF and MRF) developed by the author’s  research team.

In the second part, basic principles of measurement and some typical examples for large and middle-scale aspheric surfaces are discussed. Then, according to the demands of low cost, high accuracy and in-situ measurement methods in the manufacturing process, three kinds of technologies are introduced, such as the Cartesian and swing-arm polar coordinate profilometer, the sub-aperture stitching interferometer and the phase retrieval method based on diffraction principle. Some key techniques are also discussed, including the basic principles, mathematical modeling methods, machine design and process parameter selection, as well as engineering practices and experimental results. Finally, the team’s research results about subsurface quality measurement and guarantee methods are also described.

This book can be used as a reference for scientists and technologists working in optical manufacturing, ultra-precision machining, precision instruments and measurement, and other precision engineering fields. 

  • A complete all-in-one reference to aspheric fabrication and testing for optical applications
  • Presents the latest research findings from the author’s internationally recognized leading team who are at the cutting edge of the technology
  • Brings together surface processing and measurement in one complete volume, discussing problems and solutions
  • Guides the reader from an introductory overview through to more advanced and sophisticated techniques of metrology and manufacturing, suitable for the student and the industry professional

About the Author xiii

Foreword xv

Preface xvii

1 Foundation of the Aspheric Optical Polishing Technology 1

1.1 Advantages and Application of Aspheric Optics 1

1.1.1 Advantages of Optical Aspherics 1

1.1.2 The Application of Aspheric Optical Components in Military Equipment 2

1.1.3 The Aspheric Optical Components in the Civilian Equipment 2

1.2 The Characteristics of Manufacturing Aspheric Mirror 3

1.2.1 Requirements of Modern Optical System on Manufacturing Aspheric Parts 3

1.2.2 The Processing Analysis of Aspheric Optical Parts 7

1.3 The Manufacturing Technology for Ultra-Smooth Surface 9

1.3.1 Super-Smooth Surface and Its Applications 9

1.3.2 Manufacturing Technology Overview of Super-Smooth Surface 11

1.3.3 Manufacturing Technology of Ultra-Smooth Surface Based on the Mechanical Micro-Cutting Principles 12

1.3.4 The Traditional Abrasive Polishing Technology for Ultra-Smooth Surface 13

1.3.5 The Principles and Methods of Non-contact Ultra-Smooth Polishing 15

1.3.6 The Non-contact Chemical Mechanical Polishing (CMP) 17

1.3.7 The Magnetic Field Effect Auxiliary Processing Technology 17

1.3.8 The Particle Flowing Machining Technology 18

1.4 The Advanced Aspheric Optical Polishing Technology 19

1.4.1 The Classic Polishing for Aspheric Optical Parts 19

1.4.2 The Modern CNC Polishing Method of Aspheric Optical Parts 20

1.4.3 The Controllable Compliant Tool (CTT) Manufacturing Technology for Aspheric Optical Components 22

1.5 The CCT Based on Elasticity Theory 28

1.5.1 The Controlled Elastic Deformation Pad Polishing—Stressed-Lap Polishing (SLP) 29

1.5.2 The Controlled Mirror Body Elastic Deformation Polishing by Active Support 29

1.5.3 Bonnet Polishing with Precession Process 30

1.6 The Key Basic Theory of CCT Technology Based on the Multi-Energy Field 30

1.6.1 The Material Removal Mechanism and Mathematical Model 31

1.6.2 The Multi-Parameter Control Strategy 32

1.6.3 4D CNC Technology 34

1.6.4 The Evolution Theory and Control Technology of the Errors 36

1.6.5 The Equipment and Technology of the CCT 40

References 41

2 The Basic Theory of Aspheric Optical Lapping and Polishing Technology 45

2.1 The Preston Equation of Optical-Mechanical Polishing Technology and Its Application 45

2.1.1 The Preston Equation 45

2.1.2 The Application of Preston Equation in the Traditional Polishing 47

2.2 The Deterministic Processing Principle for Aspheric 49

2.3 The Molding Theory of Aspheric Surface Processing 51

2.3.1 The Dual-Series Model for the Aspheric Molding Process 51

2.3.2 The Influence of the Removal Function Size on the Processing 53

2.3.3 The Influence of Removal Function Disturbing 55

2.3.4 The Influence of the Positioning Errors 59

2.3.5 The Influence of Discrete Interval 60

2.4 The Figuring Theory of Linear Scanning Mode on Full-Aperture 63

2.4.1 The Iterative Algorithm Based on Bayesian 64

2.4.2 The Pulse Iterative Method 72

2.4.3 The Truncated Singular Value Decomposition 73

2.5 The Polar Scanning Mode of Surface Figuring 76

2.5.1 The Removal Function with Approximate Rotation Symmetry Property 76

2.5.2 The Removal Function without the Characteristics of Rotation Symmetry 78

2.6 The Frequency Domain Analysis of Forming 83

2.6.1 The Characteristics of the Spectrum Under the General Forming Conditions 84

2.6.2 The Figuring Ability of the Rotary Symmetric Removal Function 86

2.7 Maximum Entropy Principle of Polishing 87

2.7.1 The Entropy Principle Expression for Polishing 88

2.7.2 An Application Example of the Principle of Maximum Entropy in the Fixed Eccentric Flat Polishing 89

2.7.3 The Example of Processing Parameter Choice Based on Maximum Entropy Principle for Dual-Rotor Pad 92

2.7.4 The Example of Inhibition Medium and High Frequency Errors Based on the Entropy Increase Principle for the MRF 96

Appendix 2.A Two-Dimensional Hermite Series 102

Appendix 2.B Two-Dimensional Fourier Series 104

Appendix 2.C The Dual-Series Model Solution of Dwell Time 106

Appendix 2.D The Error Analysis of the Dual-Series Model Solution for Dwell Time 108

References 109

3 CCOS Technology Based on Small Polishing Pad 113

3.1 Review of CCOS Technology Based on Small Polishing Pad 113

3.1.1 Progress of Small Tool CCOS Technology 113

3.1.2 Key Problems of Small Tool CCOS Technology 115

3.2 Aspheric Optical Compound Machining Tool Optical Aspherical Mirror Process Machine Tool 118

3.3 Modeling and Analysis of Removal Function 120

3.3.1 Characteristics of Ideal Removal Function 120

3.3.2 Theoretical Model 121

3.3.3 Experimental Model 122

3.3.4 Figuring Ability Analysis of Removal Function 124

3.3.5 Modeling and Analysis of the Complex Shape Polishing Pad’s Removal Function 128

3.4 Calculation and Analysis of Dwell Time in CCOS Technology 136

3.4.1 Pulse Iterative Method Based on Process Time 136

3.4.2 Influence of Convolution Effect on Residual Error 138

3.5 Removal Function Modeling Under the Edge Effect 147

3.5.1 Pressure Distribution When the Polishing Pad Out of Edge 148

3.5.2 Removal Function Modeling Under Edge Effect 152

3.6 Cause and Modification Method of Optical Surface Small-Scale Manufacturing Error 157

3.6.1 Cause and Evaluation of Optical Surface Small-Scale Manufacturing Error 157

3.6.2 Full Aperture Uniform Polishing Correction Method of Small-Scale Manufacturing Error 159

3.6.3 Deterministic Local Modification Method of Small-Scale Manufacturing Error 173

References 176

4 Ion Beam Figuring Technology 179

4.1 Outline of Ion Beam Figuring Technology 179

4.1.1 Application of Ion Beam Processing Technology 179

4.1.2 The Basic Mechanism and Character for Optical Machining by IBF 181

4.1.3 Development of IBF of Optical Mirror 183

4.2 Basic Principle of IBF for Optical Mirror 185

4.2.1 Description of Ion Sputter Process 185

4.2.2 Material Removal Rate of IBF 188

4.3 Analysis of Removal Function Model in IBF 199

4.3.1 Theoretical Modeling of Removal Function in IBF 199

4.3.2 Experiment Analysis of the Removal Function Character in IBF 203

4.3.3 Experiment Modeling of Removal Function in IBF 208

4.4 IBF System Design and Analysis 210

4.4.1 System Set-Up 210

4.4.2 System Analysis 213

4.5 Micro-Scale Error Evolution During IBF 222

4.5.1 Surface Roughness Evolution 222

4.5.2 Microscopic Morphology Evolution 223

4.6 The Polishing Experiment of IBF 230

4.6.1 Flat Optical Mirror Polishing Experiment 230

4.6.2 Curved Surface Figuring Experiment 232

References 235

5 Magnetorheological Figuring 237

5.1 Overview of Magnetorheological Figuring 237

5.1.1 Applications of Magnetorheological Fluid 237

5.1.2 Development of Magnetic-Effect-Assisted Polishing Techniques for Optics 239

5.1.3 Development of Deterministic Magnetorheological Figuring 240

5.2 Mechanism and Mathematical Model of MRF Material Removal 244

5.2.1 Mechanism of MRF Material Removal 244

5.2.2 Theoretical Calculation of Load on Single Abrasive and Indentation Depth 245

5.2.3 Fluid Dynamics Analysis and Calculation in Polishing 247

5.3 MRF Machine Tools 257

5.3.1 Basic Requirement on MRF Machine Structure 257

5.3.2 Machine Structure of MRF Experimental Prototype 258

5.3.3 Design of Upside Down MRF Polishing Devices 259

5.3.4 MR Fluid Circulation and Control System 263

5.4 MR Fluid and Its Performance 264

5.4.1 Current Situation of MR Fluid Research 264

5.4.2 Components of MR Fluid and Its Performance 265

5.4.3 Principles on Choosing MR Fluid Elements 269

5.4.4 Preparation of MR Fluid 272

5.5 Optimization of MRF Processing Parameters 272

5.5.1 Orthogonal Experiments on MRF Process Parameters 273

5.5.2 Grey Correlation Analysis 276

5.5.3 Parameter Optimization of Multiple Process Indexes 279

5.5.4 Comprehensive Optimization of Machining Process 280

5.6 MRF Optical Surfacing Technique and Machining Experiment 280

5.6.1 Algorithm of Dwell Time for Optical MRF Surfacing 280

5.6.2 MRF Polishing Examples 284

5.7 Magnetorheological Jet Polishing 294

5.7.1 Overview of Abrasive Jet Polishing 294

5.7.2 MJP Experiment and Analysis 295

5.7.3 CFD Analysis on MJP Removal Mechanism 298

5.7.4 MJP Polishing Experiments 303

References 304

6 Evaluation of Deterministic Optical Machining Errors 307

6.1 Introduction 307

6.2 Usual Evaluation Method of Optical Machining Errors 308

6.2.1 Evaluation Parameters of Geometrical Accuracy in Optical Machining Process 308

6.2.2 Evaluation Method of Optical Machining Errors Based on PSD Character Curve 310

6.2.3 Evaluation Method of Optical Machining Errors Based on Scattering Theory 311

6.2.4 Evaluation Method of Optical Machining Errors Based on Statistical Optical Theory 311

6.3 Analysis on Distribution Characteristics of Optical Machining Errors 312

6.3.1 Evaluation and Analysis on Machining Errors of Any Direction on Optical Surface 312

6.3.2 Evaluation and Analysis of Local Errors on Optical Surface 319

6.3.3 Influence of Processing Method on Optical Machining Errors 323

6.4 Scattering Evaluation of Optical Machining Errors 340

6.4.1 Binary Separation of Frequency Band for Optical Machining Errors 341

6.4.2 Evaluation Based on Harvey-Shack Scattering Theory 344

6.4.3 Influence of Optical Machining Errors on Scattering Properties 348

6.5 Evaluation of Frequency Band Errors Based on Optical Performance 353

6.5.1 Influence Characteristic of Different Frequency Errors on Optical Performance 353

6.5.2 Requirement of Frequency Band Errors in Different Optical Applications 356

6.5.3 Evaluation of Φ200 mm Paraboloid Mirror Machined by IBF 365

References 370

7 Measurement Technology in Manufacturing of Large-Middle Optical Surfaces 373

7.1 Introduction 373

7.1.1 Requirements of Large-Middle Optical Surfaces 373

7.1.2 Overview of Measurement in Manufacturing of Large-Middle Optical Surfaces 375

7.2 Principles of Coordinate Measurement Technology in Manufacturing of Large-Middle Optical Surfaces 376

7.3 Interferometric Null Test in Manufacturing of Large-Middle Optical Surfaces 377

7.3.1 Basic Principle of Interferometric Null Test 377

7.3.2 Null Test of Large-Middle Planar and Spherical Surfaces 378

7.3.3 Null Test of Conic Surfaces Using Conjugates 379

7.3.4 Null Test of Aspheric Surfaces Using Compensators 383

7.3.5 Null Test with Computer Generated Holograms 384

7.4 Non-Null Test in Manufacturing of Large-Middle Optical Surfaces 386

7.4.1 Shear Interferometry 386

7.4.2 Interferometry with High Resolution CCD 386

7.4.3 Sub-Nyquist Interferometry 387

7.4.4 Long-Wavelength Interferometry 387

7.4.5 Subaperture Stitching Interferometry 387

7.5 Phase Retrieval Technology 388

7.6 Subsurface Quality Assessment 388

References 389

8 Coordinate Measuring Technology of Optical Aspheric Surface 391

8.1 State of the Art of the Coordinate Measuring Technology of Optical Aspheric Surface 391

8.1.1 Status and Characteristics of Coordinate Measuring Technology for Optical Aspheric Surface 391

8.1.2 State of the Art of Optical Aspheric Coordinate Measuring Technology and Development Tendency 393

8.2 Large Aperture Aspheric Coordinate Measuring Technology 397

8.2.1 The Design of Coordinate Measuring System 397

8.2.2 The Measurement Principle of Large Aspheric Coordinate Measuring 405

8.2.3 Analysis and Evaluation of Optical Aspheric Form Error Based on Multiple Section Line Measurement 408

8.2.4 Machining Case—Machining and Measuring of Ø500 mm Aspheric 421

8.3 The Swing Arm Measurement of Large Aspheric 425

8.3.1 The Analysis of Measuring Principle 425

8.3.2 The Structural Design of Measuring System 430

8.3.3 The Accuracy Analysis and Modeling of the Measuring System 431

8.3.4 The Optimization Algorithm for Swing Arm Profilometry Measuring Aspheric Vertex Curvature Radius 438

8.3.5 The Simulation of Measurement Algorithm and Measurement Experiments 442

References 446

9 Subaperture Stitching Interferometry 449

9.1 Introduction 449

9.1.1 Basic Principle of Subaperture Stitching Interferometry 449

9.1.2 Overview of Subaperture Stitching Interferometry 449

9.2 Fundamentals of Subaperture Stitching Algorithm 452

9.2.1 Mathematical Model of Two-Subaperture Stitching 452

9.2.2 Model and Algorithm for Simultaneous Stitching 453

9.3 Iterative Algorithm for Subaperture Stitching 454

9.3.1 Mathematical Model 455

9.3.2 Iterative Algorithm 460

9.3.3 Coarse-Fine Stitching Strategy for Large Optical Surfaces 463

9.4 Method for Subaperture Lattice Design 463

9.4.1 Rough Design of Lattice 464

9.4.2 Calculation of Best-Fit Spheres for Subapertures 467

9.4.3 Simulation and Verification of Lattice Design 469

9.5 Subaperture Stitching Interferometer 472

9.5.1 Mechanical Configurations of Subaperture Stitching Interferometer 472

9.5.2 Kinematics of Subaperture Stitching Interferometer 474

9.6 Case Study 477

9.6.1 Large Flats and Planar Wavefronts 477

9.6.2 Spherical Surfaces 488

9.6.3 Aspheric Surfaces 491

9.7 Future Development of Subaperture Stitching Interferometry 495

9.7.1 Non-null Subaperture Stitching Test 496

9.7.2 Null Subaperture Stitching Test 496

9.7.3 Near-Null Subaperture Stitching Test 500

Appendix 9.A Derivation of the Linearized Configuration Optimization Subproblem 503

Appendix 9.B Block-Wise QR Decomposition Procedure for Linear LS Problem 506

References 507

10 Phase Retrieval In Situ Testing of Large-Middle Optical Surfaces 511

10.1 Introduction to Phase Retrieval Technology 511

10.1.1 Significance of Phase Retrieval In Situ Testing 511

10.1.2 Application of Phase Retrieval Method 512

10.1.3 Theory of Phase Retrieval Algorithm 513

10.2 Basic Principle and Algorithm for Phase Retrieval Optical Testing 514

10.2.1 Principle of Phase Retrieval Optical Testing 514

10.2.2 Diffraction Computation for Optical Field Propagation 517

10.2.3 Phase Retrieval Algorithm for Surface Figure Testing 519

10.3 Phase Retrieval Testing of Spherical Wavefronts 524

10.3.1 Measurement Setup 524

10.3.2 Measurement of Large Diameter Spherical Surface 524

10.4 Subpixel Phase Retrieval Testing 528

10.4.1 Principle of Subpixel Phase Retrieval Testing 529

10.4.2 Design of Subpixel Intensity Constraint Function 531

10.4.3 Subpixel Phase Retrieval Testing Experiments 533

10.5 Aspheric Phase Retrieval 535

10.5.1 Aspheric Departure 535

10.5.2 Characteristic of Aspheric Defocused Field 536

10.5.3 Measurement Plan for Aspheric Phase Retrieval 539

10.5.4 Aspheric Phase Retrieval Algorithm Design 541

10.5.5 Testing of a 170 mm Aperture Parabolic Surface 543

10.5.6 Phase Retrieval Testing of Aspheres Using Paraxial Conjugates 547

10.6 High Dynamic Range Phase Retrieval 550

10.6.1 High Dynamic Range Algorithm 550

10.6.2 Parametric Conjugate Gradient Method 552

10.6.3 Testing of Roughly Polished Surfaces 554

10.7 Phase Retrieval Testing of Off-Axis Aspheric 555

10.7.1 Phase Retrieval Principle for Off-Axis Aspheric 557

10.7.2 Testing of an Off-Axis Elliptical Surface 564

References 569

11 Subsurface Damage of Optical Components in Manufacturing Processes 573

11.1 Compendium of Subsurface Damage 573

11.1.1 Concept of Subsurface Damage 573

11.1.2 Influence of Subsurface Damage on the Service Performance of Optical Elements 574

11.2 Production Mechanism of Subsurface Damage 575

11.2.1 Production Mechanism of Subsurface Damage Induced in Grinding and Lapping Processes 575

11.2.2 Production Mechanism of Subsurface Damage Induced in Polishing Process 577

11.3 Measurement Techniques of Subsurface Damage 578

11.3.1 Destructive Measuring Methods 578

11.3.2 Non-destructive Measuring Methods 586

11.4 Relationship between Subsurface Damage and Surface Roughness of Optical Materials in Grinding and Lapping Processes 588

11.4.1 Measurement Ratio of Subsurface Damage Depth to Surface Roughness 589

11.4.2 Theoretical Analysis with Indentation Fracture Mechanics 591

11.5 Influence of Machining Parameters on Subsurface Damage Depth 594

11.5.1 Influence of Grinding Parameters on Subsurface Damage Depth 595

11.5.2 Influence of Lapping Parameters on Subsurface Damage Depth 597

11.6 Polishing Subsurface Damage and Its Elimination Process 608

11.6.1 Characteristics and Evaluation of Polishing Subsurface Damage 609

11.6.2 Improvement of Laser Induced Damage Threshold through the Elimination of Subsurface Damage 611

References 615

Index 617