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Laser Diodes and Their Applications to Communications and Information Processing

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Laser Diodes and Their Applications to Communications and Information Processing

Takahiro Numai

ISBN: 978-1-118-07442-8 March 2011 Wiley-IEEE Press 390 Pages

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Description

In order to develop excellent photonic devices, we have to fully understand the physics behind operations of photonic devices. This book thoroughly teaches the fundamental physics currently applied to the development of photonics devices such as energy bands of semiconductors, optical transitions, optical waveguides, and semiconductor junctions. The book also reviews the characteristics of laser diodes, optical filters, and optical functional devices, which have been developed based on the above physics. These photonic devices have been demonstrated in system applications, and several experimental results are described.

Preface ix

Part I Physics Required to Design Laser Diodes 1

1 Energy Bands in Bulk and Quantum Structures 3

1.1 Introduction 3

1.2 Bulk Structure 4

1.3 Quantum Structures 14

1.4 Superlattices 19

References 21

2 Optical Transitions 23

2.1 Introduction 23

2.2 Direct and Indirect Transitions 24

2.3 Light-Emitting Processes 25

2.4 Spontaneous Emission Stimulated Emission and Absorption 26

2.5 Optical Gains 27

References 37

3 Optical Waveguides 39

3.1 Introduction 39

3.2 Two-Dimensional Optical Waveguides 41

3.3 Three-Dimensional Optical Waveguides 52

References 54

4 Optical Resonators 57

4.1 Introduction 57

4.2 Fabry–Perot Cavity 59

4.3 Waveguide Grating 65

4.4 Vertical Cavity 82

References 91

5 pn- and pnpn-Junctions 93

5.1 Intrinsic Semiconductor 93

5.2 Extrinsic Semiconductor 97

5.3 pn-Junction 103

5.4 pnpn-Junction 117

References 121

Part II Conventional Laser Diodes 123

6 Fabry–Perot Laser Diodes 125

6.1 Introduction 125

6.2 Rate Equations 128

6.3 Current versus Voltage Characteristics 130

6.4 Current versus Light Output Characteristics 131

6.5 Polarization of Light 146

6.6 Transverse Modes 148

6.7 Longitudinal Modes 157

6.8 Modulation Characteristics 160

6.9 Noises 172

References 189

7 Quantum Well Laser Diodes 191

7.1 Introduction 191

7.2 Features of Quantum Well LDs 191

7.3 Strained Quantum Well LDs 201

References 211

8 Single-Mode Laser Diodes 213

8.1 Introduction 213

8.2 DFB LDs 213

8.3 DBR LDs 222

8.4 Vertical Cavity Surface-Emitting LDs 224

References 229

9 Semiconductor Optical Amplifiers 233

9.1 Introduction 233

9.2 Signal Gain 233

9.3 Polarization 238

9.4 Noises 239

References 241

Part III Advanced Laser Diodes and Related Devices 247

10 Phase-Controlled DFB Laser Diodes 249

10.1 Introduction 249

10.2 Theoretical Analysis 249

10.3 Device Structure 251

10.4 Device Characteristics and Discussion 252

10.5 Summary 254

References 255

11 Phase-Shift-Controlled DFB Laser Diodes 257

11.1 Introduction 257

11.2 Theoretical Analysis 258

11.3 Device Structure 262

11.4 Device Characteristics and Discussion 264

11.5 Summary 269

References 269

12 Phase-Controlled DFB Laser Filter 271

12.1 Introduction 271

12.2 Device Structure 272

12.3 Device Characteristics and Discussion 272

12.4 Summary 276

References 277

13 Phase-Shift-Controlled DFB Filter 279

13.1 Introduction 279

13.2 Theoretical Analysis 280

13.3 Device Structure 282

13.4 Device Characteristics and Discussion 283

13.5 Summary 287

References 287

14 Passive Phase-Shifted DFB Filter 289

14.1 Introduction 289

14.2 Theoretical Analysis 290

14.3 Device Structure 294

14.4 Device Characteristics and Discussion 298

14.5 Summary 301

References 301

15 Two-Section Fabry–Perot Filter 305

15.1 Introduction 305

15.2 Theoretical Analysis 306

15.3 Device Structure 309

15.4 Device Characteristics and Discussion 311

15.5 Summary 314

References 315

16 Optical Functional Devices with pnpn-Junctions 317

16.1 Introduction 317

16.2 Edge-Emitting Optical Functional Device 318

16.3 Surface-Emitting Optical Functional Device 321

References 336

Part IV System Demonstrations Using Advanced Laser Diodes and Related Devices 339

17 Photonic Switching Systems 341

17.1 Introduction 341

17.2 Wavelength Division Switching 344

17.3 Wavelength- and Time-Division Hybrid Switching 345

17.4 Summary 350

References 350

18 Optical Information Processing 353

18.1 Introduction 353

18.2 Serial-to-Parallel Data Conversion 354

18.3 Optical Self-Routing Switch 355

18.4 Optical ATM Switch 356

18.5 Optical Interconnection 359

18.6 Optical Memory 362

18.7 Optical Bus 365

References 366

Appendix A: Density of States 367

Appendix B: Density of States Effective Mass 381

Appendix C: Conductivity Effective Mass 383

Index 385