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Life Cycle Costing for Facilities

Life Cycle Costing for Facilities

Alphonse Dell'Isola, Stephen J. Kirk

ISBN: 978-0-876-29702-5

May 2003

Select type: Hardcover

In Stock



Facility designers and owners are frustrated with cost-cutting efforts that yield the cheapest product, but sacrifice quality. Life cycle costing, properly done, enables them to achieve both – high quality and costs that meet their budgets.  

The authors, widely recognized leaders in these techniques, show how LCC can work for a broad variety of projects – from several types of buildings, to roads and bridges, to HVAC and electrical upgrades, to materials and equipment procurement.  

 LCC can be applied to every aspect of construction – from all types of buildings (commercial, educational, industrial, health care and more), to roads and bridges, to HVAC equipment and electrical systems upgrades and materials and equipment procurement. A life cycle costs section, a major part of the book, provides maintenance and replacement costs for all elements of the facility – from the foundation and structure to the walls and floors, plumbing, HVAC and electrical systems, and landscaping. The electronic life cycle costing spreadsheet program included with the book simplifies the process of applying LCC to users’ own projects.


There are also sixteen Case Studies that show how to apply LCC to particular facility types and building components, including:

  • Health care and nursing facilities
  • College campus and high schools
  • Office buildings, courthouses, and banks
  • Chemical plants and museum renovations
  • Regional highway systems
  • Exterior walls, elevators, lighting, HVAC, and more

The book’s extensive cost section provides maintenance and replacement costs for facility elements… from foundation and structure to walls and floors, plumbing, HVAC and electrical, and landscaping.

These proven methods are equally effective in new construction, remodeling, renovations, and restorations.

About the Author.


Chapter 1: Today’s Landscape Industry.

Breaking Down a Landscape Project.

The Landscape Professional & Project Management.

Building Your Business.

Planning the Landscape Proposal.


Chapter 2: Materials & Methods.

Site Work.

Hard Construction, or “Hardscape”.

Horticultural Materials.

Irrigation Systems (Sprinkler & Drip).


Other Green Building Approaches to Landscaping.


Historic Landscape Preservation.

Seasonal Specialties.

The Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) Requirements.


Chapter 3: Equipment.

Equipment Rental & Subcontracting.

The Economics of Purchase & Leasing.

Life Cycle Costs & Productivity.

Tracking Costs.

Equipment Life Expectancy.


Chapter 4: Beginning the Estimate.

To Bid or Not to Bid.

Prior Knowledge & Estimating.

Before Starting the Estimate.

The Landscape Project Analysis Form.

Types of Estimates.


Chapter 5: How to Take Off Quantities.

Takeoff Tips.

Guidelines for the Takeoff.

The Step-by-Step Takeoff Process.


Chapter 6: Pricing the Estimate.

Grouping the Items.

Adding Costs.

Types of Costs.


Chapter 7: Sample Takeoff & Estimate.

Sample Project.

Area Measurements & Plan Reading.

Site Work.

Hard Construction.

Plant & Landscape Materials.

Estimate Summary.


Chapter 8: Bidding.

What Makes a Winning Bid?

Bidding Strategies.

The Bid Package.

Types of Bids.

Putting Together a Bid.


Chapter 9: Job Planning & Scheduling.

The Planning Team.

The Job Schedule.

Plan, Coordinate, Target.

Time Schedules.

Sequence of Installation & Duration Time.

Project Budget.

Schedule Review.

Work Completion.


Chapter 10: Estimating Maintenance Costs.

Business Growth & Opportunity.

Division of Maintenance Tasks.

Landscape Materials.

Vehicles & Equipment.

Work Crews or Teams.

Site Inspection.

Scheduling & Travel Time.

Facilities Personnel as Landscape Managers.

The Landscape Contractor’s Ongoing Performance Analysis.

Developing a Maintenance Proposal: An Example.


Chapter 11: How to Use Means Cost Data.

Using Cost Data.

Format of Data.

Unit Price Section.

Assemblies Cost Tables.

Reference Numbers.

City Cost Indexes.

Historical Cost Indexes.



Appendix A– Estimating.

Appendix B– Site Work.

Appendix C– Hard Construction.

Appendix D–Planting & Weather.

Appendix E–Resources.

Appendix F–Abbreviations.