Skip to main content

Lignocellulosic Fibers and Wood Handbook: Renewable Materials for Today's Environment

Lignocellulosic Fibers and Wood Handbook: Renewable Materials for Today's Environment

Mohamed Naceur Belgacem (Editor), Antonio Pizzi (Editor)

ISBN: 978-1-118-77372-7

Apr 2016

704 pages

Description

This book will focus on lignocellulosic fibres as a raw material for several applications. It will start with wood chemistry and morphology. Then, some fibre isolation processes will be given, before moving to composites, panel and paper manufacturing, characterization and aging.

Preface xxi

Part 1: Wood and Fibres: Raw Materials

1 Introduction and State-of-the-Art 3
Mohamed Naceur Belgacem and Antonio Pizzi

2 Wood and Wood Fiber Characteristics: Moisture, Biological, Thermal and Weathering 7
Roger M. Rowel

2.1 Introduction 7

2.2 Moisture 8

2.3 Biological 20

2.4 Thermal 30

2.5 Fire Retardants 36

2.6 Weathering 41

References 45

3 Chemical Composition and Properties of Wood 49
Tatjana Stevanovic

3.1 Introduction 49

3.2 Cellulose 50

3.3 Hemicelluloses of Wood 68

3.4 Lignin(s) 80

3.5 Wood Extractives 96

References 103

4 Recycled Fibers 107
Nathalie Marlin and Bruno Carre

4.1 The Context and the Key Data 107

4.2 Recovered Paper and Board Grades 110

4.3 Unit Operations for Paper Recycling Processes 113

4.4 Recycling and Deinking Lines 119

4.5 Deinked Pulp Quality and Controls 122

4.6 The Limits of Paper Recycling 129

Acknowledgement 129

References 130

5 Recovered Papers Deinking by Froth Flotation 133
Davide Beneventi, Jeremy Allix, Patrice Nortier and Elisa Zeno

5.1 Introduction 133

5.2 Mass Transfer Mechanisms 135

5.3 Control of Process Performance by Chemical Additives 143

5.4 Flotation Deinking Process Modeling 149

References 152

6 High-Yield Pulps: An Interesting Concept for Producing Lignocellulosic Fibers 157
Michel Petit-Conil, Michael Lecourt and Valrie Meyer

6.1 Introduction 157

6.2 History of Mechanical Pulping 158

6.3 Principles of Mechanical Pulping Processes and Quality of Pulps 161

6.4 Quality of Mechanical Pulping Processes 171

6.5 Industrial Production of Mechanical Pulps 176

6.6 Bleaching of Mechanical Pulps 181

6.7 New Technologies under Development 185

6.8 Conclusion 201

References 201

7 Kraft Pulping 207
Dominique Lachenal

7.1 Introduction 207

7.2 Chemical Reagents 208

7.3 Mechanism of Delignification 209

7.4 Degradation of Carbohydrates during Kraft Pulping 213

7.5 Composition of Kraft Pulps 216

7.6 Improvement of the Kraft Process 217

7.7 Recovery of Cooking Reagents 220

7.8 Conclusion 222

References 222

8 Sulphite Pulping 225
Dmitry V. Evtuguin

8.1 Introduction 225

8.2 Brief History of Pulping Processes 227

8.3 Sulphite Pulping Chemicals 228

8.4 General Aspects of Sulphite Pulping 230

8.5 Reactions of Sulphite Pulping 234

References 243

Part 2: Wood and Fibres: Composites and Panels

9 Synthetic Adhesives for Wood Fibers and Composites: Chemistry and Technology 247
A. Pizzi

9.1 Introduction 247

9.2 Urea-Formaldehyde (UF) Adhesives 248

9.3 Melamine-Formaldehyde (MF) and Melamine-Urea-Formaldehyde (MUF) Adhesives 252

9.4 Phenolic Resins 255

9.5 Resorcinol Adhesives 259

9.6 Thermosetting Adhesives Based on Natural Resources 262

9.7 Isocyanate and Polyurethane Wood Adhesives 263

9.8 Chemistry of Isocyanate Wood Adhesives 263

9.9 Technology of Isocyanate Adhesives 264

9.10 Conditions of Application of Isocyanate Adhesives for Wood 269

9.11 Emulsion Polymer Isocyanates (EPI) 270

9.12 Polyvinyl Acetate (PVAc), EVAs and Acrylics 271

9.13 Hot Melts 272

References 273

10 Natural Adhesives, Binders and Matrices for Wood and Fiber Composites: Chemistry and Technology 277
A. Pizzi

10.1 Introduction 277

10.2 Tannin Adhesives 278

10.3 Lignin Adhesives 282

10.4 Mixed Tannin-Lignin Adhesives and Resins 285

10.5 Protein Adhesives 286

10.6 Carbohydrate Adhesives 287

10.7 Unsaturated Oil Adhesives 287

10.8 Wood Welding without Adhesives 289

10.9 Alternative Systems to Weld Wood 299

References 301

11 Chemically-Based Modern Wood Composites 305
Gerd Wegener and Elisabeth Windeisen

11.1 Introduction 305

11.2 Conventional Concepts and Products 305

11.3 New Concepts and Products 306

11.4 Outlook 310

References 310

12 Chemical Modification of Solid Wood 313
Philippe Gerardin

12.1 Introduction 313

12.2 Chemical Modifications Involving the Use of Chemicals 314

12.3 Chemical Modifications Using Heat Treatments 317

12.4 Conclusions 320

References 321

13 Modification of Natural Fibers Using Physical Technologies and Their Applications for Composites 323
Stephane Molina

13.1 Introduction 323

13.2 Wave and Radiation Technologies for Cellulosic Fiber Surface Modification 325

13.3 Physicochemical Technologies for Surface Modification of Cellulosic Fibers 334

13.4 Mechanical and Thermomechanical Technologies for Surface Modification of Cellulosic Fibers 335

13.5 Conclusions 340

References 340

14 Wood and Fiber-Based Composites: Surface Properties and Adhesion 345
Douglas Gardner, Gloria Oporto, and William Tze

14.1 Introduction: Practical Significance of Surface Properties and Adhesion 345

14.2 Adhesion Theories and Mechanisms 346

14.3 Interfacial Phenomena in Wood and Fiber Adhesion 347

14.4 Adhesion Interactions as a Function of Length Scale 349

14.5 Wood Bonding Considerations 350

14.6 Wood and Fiber Surface Properties 352

14.7 Wood Surface Modification 354

14.8 Analytical Techniques to Measure Wood and Fiber Surface Properties 359

References 378

15 Wood and Fiber Panels Technology 385
A.Pizzi

15.1 Introduction 385

15.2 Wood as a Substrate 385

15.3 Wood Plasticization 386

15.4 Types of Wood Panels 387

15.5 Influence of the Adhesive in Wood Panel Bonding 388

15.6 Influence of Wood in Wood Panel Production 389

15.7 Production Condition Parameters in Wood Panel Gluing 391

15.8 Correlation between Pressing Parameters and Physical Properties 398

References 402

Part 3: Wood and Fibres: Paper

16 Rheology: From Simple Fluids to Complex Suspensions 407
Raj P. Chhabra

16.1 Introduction 407

16.2 Classification of Fluid Behavior 409

16.3 Time-independent Fluid Behavior 412

16.4 Time-dependent Behavior 419

16.5 Viscoelastic Behavior 421

16.6 Small Amplitude Oscillatory Shear Motion 423

16.7 Elongational Flow 424

16.8 Rheology of Suspensions 427

16.9 Origins of Non-Newtonian Behavior 432

16.10 Implications in Engineering Applications 435

16.11 Concluding Summary 436

Acknowledgement 436

Nomenclature 436

References 437

17 Papermaking and Wet-End Chemistry 439
Eder Siqueira, Evelyne Mauret, Raphael Passas and Mohamed Naceur Belgacem

17.1 Introduction 439

17.2 Wet-end Chemicals, Fillers and Pigments: General Considerations 440

17.3 Functional Additives 444

17.4 Processing Aids 455

References 460

18 Paper Winding 463
David R. Roisutn

18.1 Introduction 463

18.2 Winder Types Found in a Paper Mill 464

18.3 Winder Classes and Types 464

18.4 Effect of Winder Classes and Types on Wound Roll Tightness 466

18.5 Roll Structure Theory and Control Curves 466

18.6 Tightness and Roll Quality Measurement 467

18.7 Winding Theory Stresses inside the Roll 469

18.8 Winding Defects 470

18.9 The Reel 471

18.10 Two-Drum Winders 472

18.11 Duplex Winders 473

18.12 Other Operations near the Rewinder 474

18.13 Automation and Productivity 474

18.14 Profile and Moisture 477

18.15 Paper Mills'Customers 478

18.16 Learning More about Winding 479

Abbreviations used in this section 479

References 479

19 Surface Treatments of Paper 481
Mohamed Naceur Belgacem and Julien Bras

19.1 Surface Sizing of Paper 481

19.2 Paper Coating 481

19.3 Specialty Papers by Coating 486

19.4 Coating Machines 489

References 491

20 Calendering of Papers and Boards: Processes and Basic Mechanisms 493
Didier Chaussy and David Guerin

20.1 Introduction 493

20.2 Calendering Processes 494

20.3 Applying Pressure in a Nip 505

20.4 Heat Transfer in the Nip 511

20.4.1 Heat Transfer Balance 511

20.5 Effect of Calendering on Paper Structure and Surface Properties 518

20.6 Conclusions and Trends in Calendering 525

References 526

21 Color and Color Reversion of Cellulosic and Lignocellulosic Fibers 531
Alain Castellan and Stephane Grelier

21.1 Introduction 531

21.2 Lignin-Free Cellulosic Fibers (Chemical Pulps) 532

21.3 Lignin-rich Cellulosic Fibers (High-yield Pulps) 539

21.4 Conclusion 549

References 549

Part 4 Wood and Fibres: Properties

22 Fire Behavior of Timber and Lignocellulose 555
Pedro Reszka and Jose L. Torero

22.1 Introduction 555

22.2 Wood in Structures 557

22.3 Basic Definition of Fire Growth 560

22.4 Degradation 561

22.5 Experimental Studies on Wood Behavior in Fire 567

22.6 Modeling Wood Behavior in Fire 570

22.7 Flammability Assessment Methods 571

22.8 The Role of Fire Retardants

22.9 Summary 577

References 578

23 Testing and Evaluation of Fire-retardant-treated Wood Products 583
Robert H. White

23.1 Introduction 583

23.2 Conditioning of Specimens 584

23.4 Regulatory Test Methods 587

23.5 Product Specific Regulatory Test Methods 588

23.6 Other Fire Test Methods 589

23.7 Tests for Smoke Obscuration 589

23.8 Other Properties of Fire-retardant-treated Wood 589

23.9 Specifications for Fire-retardant-treated Wood Products 590

23.10 Tests for Commonly Used Fire-retardant Chemicals 590

23.11 Concluding Remarks 591

References 591

24 Modern Timber Houses 595
Andreas Miiller, Hans-Peter Kolb and Maurice Brunner

24.1 Introduction 595

24.2 Tradition and Development of the Swiss Timber House 595

24.3 Timber House Systems 597

24.4 Heat Insulation and Protection against Moisture 600

24.5 Sound Protection 602

24.6 Fire Protection 604

24.7 Multistory Timber Buildings 606

24.8 Conclusions 609

References 610

25 Paper Characterization and Testing 611
Jean-Francis Block

25.1 Introduction and General Considerations 611

25.2 Composition and Structure 612

25.3 Mechanical Properties 616

25.4 Optical Properties 622

Suggested Literature 627

References 627

26 Dimensional Stabilization of Wood and Wood Composites 629
Michael Boonstra

26.1 Introduction 629

26.2 Thermal Modification 633

26.3 Chemical Modification 640

26.4 Wood Polymer Composites (WPC) 648

26.5 Other Applications 651

References 652

Index 657