Skip to main content

Lignocellulosic Polymer Composites: Processing, Characterization, and Properties

Lignocellulosic Polymer Composites: Processing, Characterization, and Properties

Vijay Kumar Thakur

ISBN: 978-1-118-77398-7

Oct 2014

584 pages

$181.99

Description

The book presents emerging economic and environmentally friendly lignocellulosic polymer composites materials that are free from side effects studied in the traditional synthetic materials.  This book brings together panels of highly-accomplished leading experts in the field of lignocellulosic polymers & composites from academia, government, as well as research institutions across the globe and encompasses basic studies including preparation, characterization, properties and theory of polymers along with applications addressing new emerging topics of novel issues.

 

  • Provide basic information and clear understanding of the present state and the growing utility of lignocellulosic materials from different natural resources
  • Includes contributions from world-renowned experts on lignocellulosic polymer composites and discusses the combination of different kinds of lignocellulosic materials from natural resources
  • Discusses the fundamental properties and applications of lignocellulosic polymers in comparison to traditional synthetic materials
  • Explores various processing/ mechanical/ physic-chemical aspects of lignocellulosic polymer composites

Preface xvii

Part I: LIGNOCELLULOSIC NATURAL POLYMERS BASED COMPOSITES

1 Lignocellulosic Polymer Composites: A Brief Overview 3
Manju Kumari Thakur, Aswinder Kumar Rana and Vijay Kumar Thakur

1.1 Introduction 3

1.2 Lignocellulosic Polymers: Source, Classification and Processing 4

1.3 Lignocellulosic Natural Fibers: Structure, Chemical Composition and  Properties 8

1.4 Lignocellulosic Polymer Composites: Classification and Applications 10

1.5 Conclusions 13

2 Interfacial Adhesion in Natural Fiber-Reinforced Polymer Composites 17
E. Petinakis, L. Yu, G. Simon, X. Dai, Z. Chen and K. Dean

2.1 Introduction 17

2.2 PLA-Based Wood-Flour Composites 18

2.3 Optimizing Interfacial Adhesion in Wood-Polymer Composites 20

2.4 Evaluation of Interfacial Properties 30

2.5 Conclusions 34

3 Research on Cellulose-Based Polymer Composites in Southeast Asia 41
Riza Wirawan and S.M. Sapuan

3.1 Introduction 42

3.2 Sugar Palm (Arenga pinnata) 44

3.3 Oil Palm (Elaeis Guineensis) 46

3.4 Durian (Durio Zibethinus) 49

3.5 Water Hyacinth (Eichhornia Crassipes) 51

3.6 Summary 57

4 Hybrid Vegetable/Glass Fiber Composites 63
Sandro C. Amico, Jose R. M. d’Almeida, Laura H. de Carvalhoand Maria O. H. Cioffi

4.1 Introduction 63

4.2 Vegetable Fiber/Glass Fiber Thermoplastic Composites 67

4.3 Intra-Laminate Vegetable Fiber/glass Fiber Thermoset Composites 69

4.4 Inter-Laminate Vegetable Fiber/glass Fiber Thermoset Composites 71

4.5 Concluding Remarks 75

Acknowledgement 76

References 76

5 Flax-Based Reinforcement Requirements for Obtaining Structural and Complex Shape Lignocellulosic Polymer Composite Parts 83
Pierre Ouagne and Damien Soulat

5.1 Introduction 84

5.2 Experimental Procedures 86

5.3 Results and Discussion 90

5.4 Discussions 97

5.5 Conclusions 98

6 Typical Brazilian Lignocellulosic Natural Fibers as Reinforcement of Thermosetting and Thermoplastics Matrices 103
Patrícia C. Miléo, Rosineide M. Leão, Sandra M. Luz, George J. M. Rocha and Adilson R. Gonçalves

6.1 Introduction 104

6.2 Experimental 105

6.3 Results and Discussion 110

6.4 Conclusions 122

Acknowledgements 123

7 Cellulose-Based Starch Composites: Structure and Properties 125
Carmen-Alice Teacã, Ruxanda Bodîrlãu and Iuliana Spiridon

7.1 Introduction 125

7.2 Starch and Cellulose Biobased Polymers for Composite Formulations 126

7.3 Chemical Modification of Starch 127

7.4 Cellulose-Based Starch Composites 129

7.5 Conclusions/Perspectives 139

8 Spectroscopy Analysis and Applications of Rice Husk and Gluten Husk Using Computational Chemistry 147
Norma-Aurea Rangel-Vazquez, Virginia Hernandez-Montoya and Adrian Bonilla-Petriciolet

8.1 Introduction 148

8.2 Methodology 160

8.3 Results and Discussions 161

8.4 Conclusions 171

9 Oil Palm Fiber Polymer Composites: Processing, Characterization and Properties 175
S. Shinoj and R. Visvanathan

9.1 Introduction 176

9.2 Oil Palm Fiber 177

9.3 Oil Palm Fiber Composites 184

9.4 Conclusions 208

10 Lignocellulosic Polymer Composites: Processing, Characterization and Properties 213
Bryan L. S. Sipião, Lais Souza Reis, Rayane de Lima Moura Paiva, Maria Rosa Capri and Daniella R. Mulinari

10.1 Introduction 213

10.2 Palm Fibers 214

10.3 Pineapple Fibers 220

Acknowledgements 227

Part II: CHEMICAL MODIFICATION OF CELLULOSIC MATERIALS FOR ADVANCED COMPOSITES

11 Agro-Residual Fibers as Potential Reinforcement Elements for Biocomposites 233
Nazire Deniz Yilmaz

11.1 Introduction 233

11.2 Fiber Sources 235

11.3 Fiber Extraction methods 239

11.4 Classification of Plant Fibers 246

11.5 Properties of Plant Fibers 247

11.6. Properties of Agro-Based Fibers 249

11.7 Modification of Agro-Based Fibers 258

11.8 Conclusion 266

12 Surface Modification Strategies for Cellulosic Fibers 271
Inderdeep Singh, Pramendra Kumar Bajpai

12.1 Introduction 271

12.2 Special Treatments during Primary Processing 273

12.3 Other Chemical Treatments 277

12.4 Conclusions 278

13 Effect of Chemical Functionalization on Functional Properties of Cellulosic Fiber-Reinforced Polymer Composites 281
Ashvinder Kumar Rana, Amar Singh Singha, Manju Kumari Thakur and Vijay Kumar Thakur

13.1 Introduction 282

13.2 Chemical Functionalization of Cellulosic Fibers 283

13.3 Results and Discussion 284

13.4 Conclusion 297

14 Chemical Modification and Properties of Cellulose-Based Polymer Composites 301
Md. Saiful Islam, Mahbub Hasan and Mansor Hj. Ahmad @ Ayob

14.1 Introduction 302

14.2 Alkali Treatment 303

14.3 Benzene Diazonium Salt Treatment  306

14.4 o-hydroxybenzene Diazonium Salt Treatment 310

14.5 Succinic Anhydride Treatment 313

14.6 Acrylonitrile Treatment 317

14.7 Maleic Anhydride Treatment 318

14.8 Nanoclay Treatment 318

14.9 Some other Chemical Treatment with Natural Fibers 320

14.10 Conclusions 321

Part III: PHYSICO-CHEMICAL AND MECHANICAL BEHAVIOUR OF CELLULOSE/ POLYMER COMPOSITES    325

15 Weathering of Lignocellulosic Polymer Composites 327
Asim Shahzad and D. H. Isaac

15.1 Introduction 328

15.2 UV Radiation 330

15.3 Moisture 335

15.4 Testing of Weathering Properties 342

15.5 Studies on Weathering of LPCs 345

15.6 Conclusions 362

16 Effect of Layering Pattern on the Physical, Mechanical and Acoustic Properties of Luffa/Coir Fiber-Reinforced Epoxy Novolac Hybrid Composites 369
Sudhir Kumar Saw, Gautam Sarkhel and Arup Choudhury

16.1 Introduction 369

16.2 Experimental 373

16.3. Characterization of ENR-Based Luffa/Coir Hybrid Composites 374

16.4 Results and Discussion 376

16.5 Conclusions 383

Acknowledgements 383

17 Fracture Mechanism of Wood-Plastic Composites (WPCS): Observation and Analysis 385
Fatemeh Alavi, Amir Hossein Behravesh and Majid Mirzaei

17.1 Introduction 385

17.2 Fracture Mechanism 396

17.3 Toughness Characterization 398

17.4 Fracture Observation 400

17.5 Fracture Analysis 402

17.6 Conclusion 409

18 Mechanical Behavior of Biocomposites under Different Operating Environments 417
Inderdeep Singh, Kishore Debnath and Akshay Dvivedi

18.1 Introduction 417

18.2 Classification and Structure of Natural Fibers 419

18.3 Moisture Absorption Behavior of Biocomposites 421

18.4 Mechanical Characterization of Biocomposites in a Humid Environment 423

18.5 Oil Absorption Behavior and Its Effects on Mechanical Properties of Biocomposites 424

18.6 UV-Irradiation and Its Effects on Mechanical Properties of Biocomposites 425

18.7 Mechanical Behavior of Biocomposites Subjected to Thermal Loading 426

18.8 Biodegradation Behavior and Mechanical Characterization of Soil Buried Biocomposites 428

18.9 Conclusions 429

Part IV: APPLICATIONS OF CELLULOSE/ POLYMER COMPOSITES 433

19 Cellulose Composites for Construction Applications 435
Catalina Gómez Hoyos and Analía Vazquez

19.1 Polymers Reinforced with Natural Fibers for Construction Applications 435

19.2 Portland Cement Matrix Reinforced with Natural Fibers for Construction Applications 440

20 Jute: An Interesting Lignocellulosic Fiber for New Generation Applications 453
Murshid Iman and Tarun K. Maji

20.1 Introduction 453

20.2 Reinforcing Biofibers 455

20.3 Biodegradable Polymers 465

20.4 Jute-Reinforced Biocomposites 466

20.5 Applications 468

20.6 Concluding Remarks 468

Acknowledgement 469

21 Cellulose-Based Polymers for Packaging Applications 477
Behjat Tajeddin

21.1 Introduction 477

21.2 Cellulose as a Polymeric Biomaterial 481

21.3 Cellulose as Coatings and Films Material 490

21.4 Nanocellulose or Cellulose Nanocomposites 492

21.5 Quality Control Tests 493

21.6 Conclusions 495

22 Applications of Kenaf-Lignocellulosic Fiber in Polymer Blends 499
Norshahida Sarifuddin and Hanafi Ismail

22.1 Introduction 499

22.2 Natural Fibers 500

22.3 Kenaf: Malaysian Cultivation 505

22.4 Kenaf Fibers and Composites 508

22.5 Kenaf Low-Density Polyethylene (LDPE)/Thermoplastic Sago Starch (TPSS) Blends 509

22.6 The Effects of Kenaf Fiber Treatment on the Properties of LDPE/TPSS Blends 512

22.7 Outlook and Future Trends 517

Acknowledgement 517

23 Application of Natural Fiber as Reinforcement in Recycled Polypropylene Biocomposites 523
Sanjay K Nayak and Gajendra Dixit

23.1 Introduction 523

23.2 Recycled Polypropylene (RPP) – A matrix for Natural Fiber Composites 533

23.3 Natural Fiber-Based Composites – An Overview 534

23.4 Conclusion 545

Index 551