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Liquid Crystal Displays: Addressing Schemes and Electro-Optical Effects, 2nd Edition

Liquid Crystal Displays: Addressing Schemes and Electro-Optical Effects, 2nd Edition

Ernst Lueder

ISBN: 978-0-470-68834-2 March 2010 516 Pages


In this second edition of Liquid Crystal Displays, Ernst Lueder provides a timely update to his successful text. His unique combination of theory and practice presents all the information required for the development and manufacture of modern high performance and energy saving LCDs. The author also strives for an easy to understand description of complex facts.

The second edition focuses on a variety of liquid crystal cells and their electronic addressing, and outlines new developments including:

  • High performance VA cells, especially for TV, due to two subpixels with excellent γ-correction also at oblique viewing
  • Short optical response times in the range of 1 ms also for inter-gray transitions due to novel addressing waveforms
  • Fringe field switching for acceleration of rise and decay of luminance eliminating frame memories
  • Reduction of motion blur by scanning backlights, high frequency frames,  edge enhancement and motion blur modeling
  • Very thin LCDs with power saving LED backlights exhibiting unmatched color purity and larger than NTSC color gamut
  • Printed layers on hydrophobic and hydrophilic areas replacing photolithography

Practicing electrical engineers, physicists, chemists and display specialists will find this a valuable resource. Researchers will appreciate the practical guidance given for the design of improved LCDs, whilst students are provided with a useful overview of the field.

The Society for Information Display (SID) is an international society, which has the aim of encouraging the development of all aspects of the field of information display. Complementary to the aims of the society, the Wiley-SID series is intended to explain the latest developments in information display technology at a professional level. The broad scope of the series addresses all facets of information displays from technical aspects through systems and prototypes to standards and ergonomics


Preface to the First Edition.

Preface to the Second Edition.

About the Author.

1 Introduction.

2 Liquid Crystal Materials and Liquid Crystal Cells.

2.1 Properties of Liquid Crystals.

2.2 The Operation of a Twisted Nematic LCD.

3 Electro-optic Effects in Untwisted Nematic Liquid Crystals.

3.1 The Planar and Harmonic Wave of Light.

3.2 Propagation of Polarized Light in Birefringent Untwisted Nematic Liquid Crystal Cells.

4 Electro-optic Effects in Twisted Nematic Liquid Crystals.

4.1 The Propagation of Polarized Light in Twisted Nematic Liquid Crystal Cells.

4.2 The Various Types of TN Cells.

4.3 Electronically Controlled Birefringence for the Generation of Colour.

5 Descriptions of Polarization.

5.1 The Characterizations of Polarization.

5.2 A Differential Equation for the Propagation of Polarized Light through Anisotropic Media.

5.3 Special Cases for Propagation of Light.

6 Propagation of Light with an Arbitrary Incident Angle through Anisotropic Media.

6.1 Basic Equations for the Propagation of Light.

6.2 Enhancement of the Performance of LC Cells.

6.3 Electro-optic Effects with Wide Viewing Angle.

6.4 Multidomain VA Cells, Especially for TV.

6.5 Polarizers with Increased Luminous Output.

6.6 Two Non-birefringent Foils.

7 Modified Nematic Liquid Crystal Displays.

7.1 Polymer Dispersed LCDs (PDLCDs).

7.2 Guest-Host Displays.

8 Bistable Liquid Crystal Displays.

8.1 Ferroelectric Liquid Crystal Displays (FLCDs).

8.2 Chiral Nematic Liquid Crystal Displays.

8.3 Bistable Nematic Liquid Crystal Displays.

9 Continuously Light Modulating Ferroelectric Displays.

9.1 Deformed Helix Ferroelectric Devices.

9.2 Antiferroelectric LCDs.

10 Addressing Schemes for Liquid Crystal Displays.

11 Direct Addressing.

12 Passive Matrix Addressing of TN Displays.

12.1 The Basic Addressing Scheme and the Law of Alt and Pleshko.

12.2 Implementation of PM Addressing.

12.3 Multiple Line Addressing.

12.4 Two Frequency Driving of PMLCDs.

13 Passive Matrix Addressing of Bistable Displays.

13.1 Addressing of Ferroelectric LCDs.

13.2 Addressing of Chiral Nematic Liquid Crystal Displays.

14 Addressing of Liquid Crystal Displays with a-Si Thin Film Transistors (a-Si-TFTs).

14.1 Properties of a-Si Thin Film Transistors.

14.2 Static Operation of TFTs in an LCD.

14.3 The Dynamics of Switching by TFTs.

14.4 Bias-Temperature Stress Test of TFTs.

14.5 Drivers for AMLCDs.

14.6 The Entire Addressing System.

14.7 Layouts of Pixels with TFT Switches.

14.8 Fabrication Processes of a-Si TFTs.

14.9 Addressing of VA Displays.

14.10 Motion Blur.

14.11 The Optical Response of a VA Cell.

14.12 Reduction of the Optical Response Time by a Special Addressing Waveform.

15 Addressing of LCDs with Poly Si-TFTs.

15.1 Fabrication Steps for Top-Gate and Bottom-Gate Poly-Si TFTs.

15.2 Laser Crystallization by Scanning or Large Area Anneal.

15.3 Lightly Doped Drains for Poly-Si TFTs.

15.4 The Kink Effect and its Suppression.

15.5 Circuits with Poly-Si TFTs.

16 Liquid Crystal on Silicon Displays.

16.1 Fabrication of LCOS with DRAM-Type Analog Addressing.

16.2 SRAM-Type Digital Addressing of LCOS.

16.3 Microdisplays Using LCOS Technology.

17 Addressing of Liquid Crystal Displays with Metal-Insulator-Metal Pixel Switches.

18 Addressing of LCDs with Two-Terminal Devices and Optical, Plasma, Laser and e-beam Techniques.

19 Components of LCD Cells.

19.1 Additive Colours Generated by Absorptive Photosensitive Pigmented Colour Filters.

19.2 Additive and Subtractive Colours Generated by Reflective Dichroic Colour Filters.

19.3 Colour Generation by Three Stacked Displays.

19.4 LED Backlights.

19.5 Cell Assembly.

20 Projectors with Liquid Crystal Light Valves.

20.1 Single Transmissive Light Valve Systems.

20.2 Systems with Three Light Valves.

20.3 Projectors with Two LC Light Valves.

20.4 A Rear Projector with One or Three Light Valves.

20.5 A Projector with Three Optically Addressed Light Valves.

21 Liquid Crystal Displays with Plastic Substrates.

21.1 Advantages of Plastic Substrates.

21.2 Plastic Substrates and their Properties.

21.3 Barrier Layers for Plastic Substrates.

21.4 Thermo-Mechanical Problems with Plastics.

21.5 Fabrication of TFTs and MIMs at low Process Temperatures.

21.6 Transfer of High Temerature Fabricated AMLCDs to a Flexible Substrate. 

22 Printing of Layers for LC-Cells.

22.1 Printing Technologies.

22.2 Surface Properties for Printing.

22.3 Printing of Components for Displays.

22.4 Cell Building by Lamination.

Appendix 1: Formats of Flat Panel Displays.

Appendix 2: Optical Units of Displays.

Appendix 3: Properties of Polarized Light.