Lithium batteries were introduced relatively recently in comparison to lead- or nickel-based batteries, which have been around for over 100 years. Nevertheless, in the space of 20 years, they have acquired a considerable market share – particularly for the supply of mobile devices. We are still a long way from exhausting the possibilities that they offer. Numerous projects will undoubtedly further improve their performances in the years to come. For large-scale storage systems, other types of batteries are also worthy of consideration: hot batteries and redox flow systems, for example.
This book begins by showing the diversity of applications for secondary batteries and the main characteristics required of them in terms of storage. After a chapter presenting the definitions and measuring methods used in the world of electrochemical storage, and another that gives examples of the applications of batteries, the remainder of this book is given over to describing the batteries developed recently (end of the 20th Century) which are now being commercialized, as well as those with a bright future. The authors also touch upon the increasingly rapid evolution of the technologies, particularly regarding lithium batteries, for which the avenues of research are extremely varied.
Part 1. Storage Requirements Characteristics of Secondary Batteries Examples of Use
1. Breakdown of Storage Requirements.
2. Definitions and Measuring Methods.
3. Practical Examples Using Electrochemical Storage.
Part 2. Lithium Batteries
4. Introduction to Lithium Batteries.
5. The Basic Elements in Lithium-ion Batteries: Electrodes, Electrolytes and Collectors.
6. Usual Lithium-ion Batteries.
7. Present and Future Developments Regarding Lithium-ion Batteries.
8. Lithium-Metal Polymer Batteries.
9. Lithium-Sulfur Batteries.
10. Lithium-Air Batteries.
11. Lithium Resources.
Part 3. Other Types of Batteries
12. Other Types of Batteries.
About the Authors
Christian Glaize is Professor at the University of Montpellier, France. He is also Researcher in the Materials and Energy Group (GEM) of the Institute for Electronics (IES), France.
Sylvie Geniès is a project manager at the French Alternative Energies and Atomic Energy Commission (Commissariat à l’Energie Atomique et aux Energies Alternatives) in Grenoble, France.
PART 1 STORAGE REQUIREMENTS CHARACTERISTICS OF SECONDARY BATTERIES EXAMPLES OF USE 1
Chapter 1 Breakdown of Storage Requirements 3
1.2.Domains of application for energy storage 3
1.3.Review of storage requirements and appropriate technologies 18
1.4. Conclusion 19
Chapter 2. Definitions and Measuring Methods 21
2.1. Introduction 21
2.3.Definitions of the characteristics 27
2.4.States of the battery 40
2.5.Faradaic efficiency 66
2.7.Acceptance current 68
2.9.Appendix 1: Nernst’s law 69
2.10.Appendix 2: Double layer 78
2.11.Appendix 3: Warburg impedance 79
2.12.Solutions to the exercises in Chapter 2 82
Chapter 3. Practical Examples Using Electrochemical Storage 89
3.2. Conclusion 109
3.3. Solution to the exercises in Chapter 3 110
PART 2. LITHIUM BATTERIES 115
Chapter 4.Introduction to Lithium Batteries 117
4.1.History of lithium batteries 117
4.2.Categories of lithium batteries 121
4.3. The different operational mechanisms for lithium batteries 122
Chapter 5.The Basic Elements in Lithium-ion Batteries: Electrodes, Electrolytes and Collectors 135
5.2.Operation of lithium-ion technology 136
5.3.Positive electrodes 138
5.4.Negative electrodes 146
5.6.Current collectors 161
5.8.Solution to exercises in Chapter 5 162
Chapter 6. Usual Lithium-ion Batteries 167
6.1.Principle of operation of conventional assemblies of electrodes 167
6.2.Major characteristics 177
6.3.Solution to exercises from Chapter 6 230
Chapter 7.Present and Future Developments Regarding Lithium-ion Batteries 235
7.1.Improvement of the operation and safety of current technologies 236
7.2.Improvement of the intrinsic performances (energy, power) 244
7.3.New formats of batteries 252
Chapter 8. Lithium-Metal Polymer Batteries 257
8.1.Principle of operation 258
8.2.Manufacturing process 260
8.3.Main characteristics 261
Chapter 9.Lithium-Sulfur Batteries 263
9.2.The element Sulfur 264
9.3.Principle of operation 264
9.4.Discharge curve 269
9.5.Advantages to Li-S 270
9.6.Limitations and disadvantages of a Li-S battery 271
Chapter 10.Lithium-Air Batteries 287
10.2.Operational principle 289
10.4.Main limitations 297
10.5.Main actors 304
10.7.Appendix: calculation of theoretical gravimetric energy densities 307
Chapter 11.Lithium Resources 309
11.1.State of the art in terms of availability of lithium resources 310
11.2.Comparison of resources with the needs of the electrical industry 312
11.3.State of the art of extraction techniques and known production reserves 315
11.4.Nature and geological origin of all potential lithium resources 318
11.5.Global geographic distribution of raw lithium resources 320
11.6.Evolution of the cost of lithium 323
PART 3.OTHER TYPES OF BATTERIES 327
Chapter 12.Other Types of Batteries 329
12.2.Sodium–Sulfur technology 330
12.3.Nickel chloride batteries 335
12.4.Conclusions about high-temperature batteries 340
12.5.Redox flow systems 340