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Lithospheric Discontinuities



Lithospheric Discontinuities

Huaiyu Yuan (Editor), Barbara Romanowicz (Editor)

ISBN: 978-1-119-24971-9 November 2018 American Geophysical Union 224 Pages

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A multidisciplinary update on continental plate tectonics and plate boundary discontinuities

Understanding the origin and evolution of the continental crust continues to challenge Earth scientists. Lithospheric Discontinuities offers a multidisciplinary review of fine scale layering within the continental lithosphere to aid the interpretation of geologic layers. Once Earth scientists can accurately decipher the history, internal dynamics, and evolution of the continental lithosphere, we will have a clearer understanding of how the crust formed, how plate tectonics began, and how our continents became habitable.

Volume highlights:

  • Theories and observations of the current state of tectonic boundaries and discontinuities 
  • Contributions on field observations, laboratory experiments, and geodynamic predictions from leading experts in the field
  • Mantle fabrics in response to various mantle deformation processes
  • Insights on fluid distribution using geophysical observations, and thermal and viscosity constraints from dynamic modeling
  • Discontinuities associated with lithosphere and lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary
  • An integrated study of the evolving physical and chemical processes associated with lithosphere asthenosphere interaction

Written for academic and researchgeoscientists, particularly in the field of tectonophysics, geophysicists, geodynamics, seismology, structural geology, environmental geology, and geoengineering, Lithospheric Discontinuities is a valuable resource that sheds light on the origin and evolution of plate interaction processes.

Contributors vii

Preface ix

Introduction—Lithospheric Discontinuities
Huaiyu Yuan and Barbara Romanowicz 1

1. On the Origin of the Upper Mantle Seismic Discontinuities 5
Shun‐ichiro Karato and Jeffrey Park

2. The Evolution of the Oceanic Lithosphere: An Electromagnetic Perspective 35
Rob. L. Evans, Emily Sarafian, and Adam R. Sarafian

3. Lithospheric and Asthenospheric Structure Below Oceans from Anisotropic Tomography 55
Jean–Paul Montagner and Gael Burgos

4. Seismic Imaging of the Base of the Ocean Plates 71
Catherine A. Rychert, Nick Harmon, and Saikiran Tharimena

5. Electrical Discontinuities in the Continental Lithosphere Imaged with Magnetotellurics 89
Kate Selway

6. A Lithosphere–Asthenosphere Boundary—a Global Model Derived from Multimode Surface‐Wave Tomography and Petrology 111
Keith Priestley, Dan McKenzie, and Tak Ho

7. Frayed Edges of Cratonic Mantle Keels: Thermal Diffusion Timescales and Their Predicted Imprint on Mantle‐Velocity Structure 125
David W. Eaton, Xuewei Bao, and Claire Perry

8. Perspectives of the S‐Receiver‐Function Method to Image Upper Mantle Discontinuities 139
Rainer Kind and Xiaohui Yuan

9. Continental Lithospheric Layering Beneath Stable, Modified, and Destroyed Cratons from Seismic Daylight Imaging 155
Weijia Sun, Brian Kennett, Liang Zhao, and Li‐Yun Fu

10. Cratonic Lithosphere Discontinuities: Dynamics of Small‐Volume Melting, Metacratonization, and a Possible Role for Brines 177
Sonja Aulbach

Index 205