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MRI of Tissues with Short T2s or T2*s



MRI of Tissues with Short T2s or T2*s

Graeme M. Bydder (Editor), Gary D. Fullerton (Editor), Ian R. Young (Editor)

ISBN: 978-1-118-59051-5 December 2012 448 Pages

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The content of this volume has been added to eMagRes (formerly Encyclopedia of Magnetic Resonance) - the ultimate online resource for NMR and MRI.

Up to now MRI could not be used clinically for imaging fine structures of bones or muscles. Since the late 1990s however, the scene has changed dramatically. In particular, Graeme Bydder and his many collaborators have demonstrated the possibility – and importance – of imaging structures in the body that were previously regarded as being “MR Invisible”. The images obtained with a variety of these newly developed methods exhibit complex contrast, resulting in a new quality of images for a wide range of new applications.

This Handbook is designed to enable the radiology community to begin their assessment of how best to exploit these new capabilities. It is organised in four major sections – the first of which, after an Introduction, deals with the basic science underlying the rest of the contents of the Handbook. The second, larger, section describes the techniques which are used in recovering the short T2 and T2* data from which the images are reconstructed. The third and fourth sections present a range of applications of the methods described earlier. The third section deals with pre-clinical uses and studies, while the final section describes a range of clinical applications. It is this last section that will surely have the biggest impact on the development in the next few years as the huge promise of Short T2 and T2* Imaging will be exploited to the benefit of patients.

In many instances, the authors of an article are the only research group who have published on the topic they describe. This demonstrates that this Handbook presents a range of methods and applications with a huge potential for future developments.

About EMR Handbooks / eMagRes Handbooks 

The Encyclopedia of Magnetic Resonance (up to 2012) and eMagRes (from 2013 onward) publish a wide range of online articles on all aspects of magnetic resonance in physics, chemistry, biology and medicine. The existence of this large number of articles, written by experts in various fields, is enabling the publication of a series of EMR Handbooks / eMagRes Handbooks on specific areas of NMR and MRI. The chapters of each of these handbooks will comprise a carefully chosen selection of articles from eMagRes. In consultation with the eMagRes Editorial Board, the EMR Handbooks / eMagRes Handbooks  are coherently planned in advance by specially-selected Editors, and new articles are written (together with updates of some already existing articles) to give appropriate complete coverage. The handbooks are intended to be of value and interest to research students, postdoctoral fellows and other researchers learning about the scientific area in question and undertaking relevant experiments, whether in academia or industry.

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Contributors ix

Series Preface xvii

Preface xix

Part A: Basic Science 1

1 An Introduction to Short and Ultrashort T2/T2* Echo Time (UTE) Imaging
Ian Young 3

2 The Physics of Relaxation
John C. Gore, Adam W. Anderson 15

3 Mechanisms for Short T2 and T2* in Collagen-Containing Tissue
Lada V. Krasnosselskaia 31

4 Physical Chemistry of Collagen: The Molecular Basis of Magic Angle Contrast
Gary D. Fullerton 43

Part B: Techniques 59

5 Centric SPRITE MRI of Biomaterials with Short T2*s
Igor V. Mastikhin, Bruce J. Balcom 61

6 Selective Excitation for Ultrashort Echo Time Imaging
John M. Pauly 69

7 Practical Implementation of UTE Imaging
Paul M. Margosian, Tetsuhiko Takahashi, Masahiro Takizawa 79

8 MRI with Zero Echo Time
M. Weiger, K. P. Pruessmann 97

9 AWSOS Pulse Sequence and High-Resolution UTE Imaging
Yongxian Qian, Fernando E. Boada 111

10 Capturing Signals from Fast-Relaxing Spins with Frequency-Swept MRI: SWIFT
Michael Garwood, Djaudat Idiyatullin, Curtis A. Corum, Ryan Chamberlain, Steen Moeller, Naoharu Kobayashi, Lauri J. Lehto, Jinjin Zhang, Robert O’Connell, Michael Tesch, Mikko J. Nissi, Jutta Ellermann, Donald R. Nixdorf 125

11 Imaging in the Presence of Prostheses
Brian A. Hargreaves, Pauline W. Worters, Kim Butts Pauly, John M. Pauly, Garry E. Gold, Kevin M. Koch 143

12 MR Imaging near Metal with UTE–MAVRIC Sequences
Michael Carl, Kevin M. Koch, Jiang Du 155

13 Effects of Hip Prostheses In Situ Exposed to 64 and 128 MHz RF Fields
Jeffrey W. Hand, Donald W. McRobbie 163

14 Absorption Methods for ESR and NMR Imaging of Solid Materials
Andrew J. Fagan, David J. Lurie 171

Part C: Preclinical 185

15 Contrast Manipulation in MR Imaging of Short T2 and T2* Tissues
Nikolaus M. Szeverenyi, Michael Carl 187

16 Magnetization Transfer – Ultrashort Echo Time (MT-UTE) Imaging
Fabian Springer, Petros Martirosian, Fritz Schick 197

17 Ultrashort TE Phase and Spectroscopic Imaging of Short T2 Tissues in the Musculoskeletal System
Jiang Du, Michael Carl, Graeme M. Bydder 209

18 Quantitative Ultrashort TE (UTE) Imaging of Short T2 Tissues
Jiang Du 221

19 MRI-Based Attenuation Correction for Emission Tomography Using Ultrashort Echo Time Sequences
Vincent Keereman, Christian Vanhove, Stefaan Vandenberghe 235

20 Imaging of Very Fast Flows with PC-UTE
Kieran R. O’Brien, Matthew D. Robson 249

21 Double-Quantum Filtered MRI of Connective Tissues
Gil Navon, Uzi Eliav 261

22 Positive-Contrast Visualization of Iron-Oxide-Labeled Cells
Peter M. Jakob, Daniel Haddad 273

Part D: Clinical 287

23 Imaging of Short and Ultrashort T2 and T2* Components of Tissues, Fluids and Materials in the Body Using Clinical Magnetic Resonance Systems
Graeme M. Bydder 289

24 Image-Based Assessment of Cortical Bone
Felix W. Wehrli 305

25 Ultrashort Echo Time Imaging of Phosphorus in Man
Matthew D. Robson 319

26 Knee
Emily J. McWalter, Hillary J. Braun, Kathryn E. Keenan, Garry E. Gold 325

27 Short and Ultrashort TE Imaging of Cartilage and Fibrocartilage
Won C. Bae, Eric Y. Chang, Christine B. Chung 339

28 Myelin Water Imaging
Alex L. MacKay, Cornelia Laule 359

29 Quantitative Metabolic MR Imaging of Human Brain Using 17O and 23Na
Ian C. Atkinson, Aiming Lu, Keith R. Thulborn 377

30 Sodium MRI in Man: Technique and Findings
Paul A. Bottomley 397

31 Short T2/T2* Imaging of Calcification and Atherosclerosis
Sonia Nielles-Vallespin 415

32 Ultrashort TE in Cancer Imaging
Konstantina Boulougouri, Christina Messiou, Nandita M. deSouza 425

33 Ultrashort TE Imaging of Cryotherapy
Aiming Lu, Bruce L. Daniel, Kim Butts Pauly 433

34 Imaging around Orthopedic Hardware: Clinical Applications
Catherine L. Hayter, Hollis G. Potter 449

Index 463