This book presents a comprehensive treatment of both the fundamental and pragmatic aspects of the required knowledge for improving the accuracy of machine tools in particular and multi-axis machines and mechanisms in general. It accomplishes this through a logical progression starting from the analytical modelling of errors through calibration, error compensation and design principles to practical evaluation methods and standards. No comprehensive publication currently exists that covers the proposed subject matter. Aiming to be the comprehensive one-stop reference in machine tool metrology, this book covers all the relevant topics. It provides a background on Error sources of machine tools followed by an overview on Mathematical modeling, including examples for different machine tools layouts. Calibration aspects are discussed bringing to attention verification methods for machine tool performance, which are the conceptual basis for the national (US) and international standards discussed in later chapters. The authors offer their opinions on machine tools application, considering the shop floor environment, the related management issues (technical and economic) and the match between machine tools performance and product specifications.