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Magnesium Technology 2014

Magnesium Technology 2014

Martyn Alderman, Michele V. Manuel, Norbert Hort, Neale R. Neelameggham

ISBN: 978-1-118-88812-4

Feb 2014

552 pages



The Magnesium Technology Symposium, the event on which this collection is based, is one of the largest yearly gatherings of magnesium specialists in the world. Papers represent all aspects of the field, ranging from primary production to applications to recycling. Moreover, papers explore everything from basic research findings to industrialization. Magnesium Technology 2014 covers a broad spectrum of current topics, including alloys and their properties; cast products and processing; wrought products and processing; forming, joining, and machining; corrosion and surface finishing; ecology; and structural applications. In addition, there is coverage of new and emerging applications in such areas as hydrogen storage. The collection includes more than 70 papers, including unpublished papers from the 2013 symposium.

Preface xiii

About the Editorsxv

Session Chairs xix

Reviewer Pool xxi

Keynote Session

Automotive Magnesium: Impacts and Opportunities 3
W. Joost

Alloy Development, Manufacturing and Design for Magnesium Applications 5
A. Luo

Life Cycle Assessment of Eco-Magnesium Alloy Produced by Green Metallurgy EU Project Process Route 7
F. D'Errico, G. Plaza, F. Giger, and S. Kim

The IMA Study on the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) of Magnesium 13
H. Friedrich, and S. Ehrenberger

Dynamic Behaviour of a Rare Earth Containing Mg Alloy, WE43B-T5, Plate with Comparison to Conventional Alloy, AM30-F 15
S. Agnew, W. Wittington, A. Oppedal, H. El Kadiri, M. Shaeffer, K. Ramesh, J. Bhattacharyya, R. DeLorme, and B. Davis

Thermodynamic and Kinetic Calculations for TRC (Twin Roll Casting) Mg Alloy Design 17
I. Jung and M. Paliwal

Powders, Recycling, Hydrometallurgy, Primary Production, and Creep

Emerging Applications Using Magnesium Alloy Powders: A Feasibility Study 21
R. Tandon and D. Madan

Isothermal Hydrogenation Kinetics Study of Magnesium Hydride with TiH2 Additive 27
J. Li, P. Fan, C. Zhou, and Z. Fang

Magnesium Electrorefining in Non-Aqueous Electrolyte at Room Temperature 31
K. Kwon, J. Park, P. Kusumah, B. Dilasari, H. Kim, and C. Lee

Recovery of Rare Earth Metals in Used Magnets by Molten Magnesium 35
T. Akahori, Y. Miyamoto, T. Saeki, M. Okamoto, and T. Okabe

Recovery of Magnesium and Recycling of Spent Solution in Chloride-Based Atmospheric Acid Leaching of Nickel Laterite 39
Y. Ge, W. Ding, D. Tan, and S. Guo

Effect of Physical Properties of Dolomite on Carbothermic Reduction 43
S. Wang, Y. Wang, G. Bin, and J. Diao

Time Dependent Springback of a Magnesium Alloy 49
B. Li, Z. McClelland, S. Horstemeyer, I. Aslam, P. Wang, and M. Horstemeyer

Precipitate Formation in Uniaxially Stressed High Pressure Die Cast Binary Mg-Nd Alloy during Creep Testing 55
D. Choudhuri, S. Nag, N. Dendge, M. Gibson, and R. Banerjee

A Review of the Influence of Production Methods and Intermetallic Phases on the Creep Properties of AZ91 59
P. Roodposhti, A. Sarkar, and K. Murty

Indentation Creep Behavior of Mg-10Gd-3Y-0.5Zr (wt.%) Alloy at Elevated Temperatures 65
H. Wang, Q. Wang, and J. Yuan

Deformation I

The Athermal Component of the Strength of Binary Mg Solid Solutions 73
S. Abaspour and C. Cáceres

Crack Propagation under Bending in Cast Mg10GdxNd-T4 Alloys 77
P. Maier, C. Mendis, M. Wolff, and N. Hort

High Shear Deformation to Produce High Strength and Energy Absorption in Mg Alloys 83
V. Joshi, S. Jana, D. Li, H. Garmestani, E. Nyberg, and C. Lavender

As-Cast Microstructure and Texture of Twin-Roll Cast AZ31 89
M. Masoumi, F. Zarandi, and M. Pekguleryuz

Post Deformation Annealing Behaviour of Mg-Al-Sn Alloys 95
A. Kabir, J. Su, M. Sanjari, I. Jung, and S. Yue

Acoustic Emission Analysis of Plane Strain-Compressed Mg Single Crystals 101
D. Drozdenko, P. Dobro, M. Knapek, D. Letzig, J. Bohlen, and F. Chmelík

Precipitation Strengthening of a Mg-Zn Alloy in Tension and Compression 105
J. Rosalie, H. Somekawa, and A. Singh

Characterization of Damage in Magnesium Using Digital Image Correlation and Electron Backscattered Diffraction Patterning 111
M. Nemcko, P. Mas, M. Bruhis, and D. Wilkinson

Low Cycle Fatigue Properties of Extruded Mg10GdxNd Alloys 115
G. Tober, P. Maier, S. Müller, and N. Hort

Quantification of Microstructure-Properties-Behavior Relations in Magnesium Alloys Using a Hybrid Approach 121
K. Hazeli, J. Cuadra, P. Vanniamparambil, R. Carmi, and A. Kontsos

Deformation II

Dislocation Activity in AZ31B Magnesium Deformed at Moderately Elevated Temperatures via EBSD 127
T. Ruggles, A. Khosravani, D. Fullwood, and M. Miles

Deformation, Recrystallization and Grain Growth Behavior of Large-Strain Hot Rolled Binary Mg-1Dy Alloy 133
I. Basu and T. Al-Samman

Strain Recrystallization and Grain Growth in AZ31B-H24 Magnesium Alloy Sheet 139
A. Antoniswamy, J. Carter, L. Hector Jr., and E. Taleff

Deformation Behavior and Dynamic Recrystallization of Micro-Alloyed Mg-Al-Ca Alloys during High Temperature Deformation 143
J. Su, A. Kabir, I. Jung, and S. Yue

Physically-Based Model for Static Recrystallization in AZ31 149
P. Okrutny, S. Liang, L. Meng, and H. Zurob

The Role of Deformation Modes on Ductility and Dynamic Recrystallization Behavior of AZ31 Mg Alloy at Low Temperatures 155
E. Dogan, M. Vaughan, C. Hayrettin, I. Karaman, and G. Ayoub

Effect of Microstructure on Deformation and Fracture of Thixomolded and Thermomechanically Processed AZ61 161
T. Berman, W. Donlon, R. Decker, T. Pollock, and J. Jones

Microstructure Evolution and Mechanical Properties of Mg-14%Li-1%Al Alloy during the High-Pressure Torsion 167
C. Tian, H. Lu, and L. Zhao

Melting, Modeling, and Solidification

Finite-Element Analysis of Melt Flow in Horizontal Twin-Roll Casting of Magnesium Alloy AZ31 173
J. Park

Nucleation and Growth of Metastable Phases in Mg-Nd, Mg-Gd and Mg-Gd-Nd Based Alloys 179
S. El Majid, G. Atiya, M. Bamberger, and A. Katsman

A Numerical and Experimental Study of Flow Behavior in High Pressure Die Casting 185
M. Saeedipour, S. Schneiderbauer, S. Pirker, and S. Bozorgi

In Situ Synchrotron Radiation Diffraction during Melting and Solidification of Mg-Al Alloys Containing CaO 191
B. Wiese, C. Mendis, D. Tolnai, G. Szakacs, A. Stark, N. Schell, H. Reichel, R. Bruckner, K. Kainer, and N. Hort

Solidification Characteristics of Wrought Magnesium Alloys Containing Rare Earth Metals 197
A. Javaid, F. Czerwinski, R. Zavadil, M. Aniolek, and A. Hadadzadeh

Strengthening due to the Percolating Eutectic Microstructure in Squeeze Cast MRI230D 203
B. Zhang, A. Nagasekhar, and C. Cáceres

Effect of Al Addition on Microstructure of AZ91D 209
U. Joshi and N. Babu

In Situ Synchrotron Radiation Diffraction during Solidification of Mg4Y and Mg4YxGd Alloys (x = 1, 4 wt.%) 213
G. Szakács, B. Wiese, C. Mendis, D. Tolnai, A. Stark, N. Schell, M. Nair, K. Kainer, and N. Hort

A New Method for Melting Mg-Li Alloys 219
L. Gong, J. Zhang, T. Yin, J. Wei, and G. Wu

Texture and Wrought Processing I

Deformation Behavior of ZE10 Magnesium Alloy Sheet 227
P. Dobron, J. Balík, F. Chmelík, K. Illková, D. Drozdenko, J. Bohlen, D. Letzig, and P. Lukac

Texture Evolution during Grain Growth of Magnesium Alloy AZ31B 233
J. Bhattacharyya, B. Radhakrishnan, G. Muralidharan, and S. Agnew

Effect of Annealing on Microstructure, Texture and Tensile Properties of Twin-Roll Cast AZ31B 239
M. Masoumi, F. Zarandi, and M. Pekguleryuz

Influence of Rolling Direction and Temperature on the Texture Formation in Rolled AZ31B Magnesium Alloy 245
L. Catorceno and N. de Lima

Texture Evolution during Wire Drawing of Mg-RE Alloy 251
M. Chatterton, J. Robson, and D. Henry

Extrusion of Hollow Magnesium Profiles and Investigation of Extrusion Seams 257
F. Gensch, R. Nitschke, S. Gall, and S. Müller

Microstructural Evolution and Its Relationship to the Mechanical Properties of Mg AZ31B Friction Stir Back Extruded Tubes 263
J. Milner and F. Abu-Farha

Effect of Yttrium Addition on Texture Development in a Cast Mg-Al-Y Magnesium Alloy during Compression 269
N. Tahreen, D. Chen, M. Nouri, and D. Li

Wrought Processing II and Joining

Spike-Forging of As-Cast TX32 Magnesium Alloy 275
K. Rao, K. Suresh, N. Hort, and K. Kainer

An Introduction to the Forging of Elektron43 - A High Performance Wrought Magnesium Alloy 281
D. Henry, M. Turski, P. Lyon, and T. Wilks

Structure and Properties of Interlayer Formed between Magnesium Alloy Core and Aluminium Alloy Coating during Deformation 285
S. Boczkal, P. Korczak, B. Plonka, W. Szymanski, and M. Nowak

A Novel Process for Producing Large Scale Mg-Sheets 289
G. Norbert, E. Marcus, N. André, K. Christian, H. Sven, B. Bernd-Arno, and H. Maier

Effect of Volume Fraction of Icosahedral Phase in CaO Added Mg-Zn-Y Alloys 293
H. Lim, D. Kim, T. Kwak, W. Yang, H. Kim, Y. Yoon, and S. Kim

Effect of CaO on Hot Workability and Microstructure of Mg-9.5Zn-2Y Alloy 297
T. Kwak, D. Kim, J. Yang, Y. Yoon, S. Kim, H. Lim, and W. Kim

Welding of Dissimilar Light Metals by Disk Laser 301
M. Sahul, M. Turna, and M. Sahul

Design of Binary Zinc-Based Solder for Joining Mg Alloy Type AZ 31 B 307
M. Jana, M. Turna, and M. Ozvold

Friction Stir Welding of Magnesium Alloy Type AZ 31 311
T. Kupec, M. Behúlová, M. Turna, and M. Sahul

Corrosion and Coatings

Enhancing Corrosion Resistance by a Hydrophobic Surface Feature for Magnesium Alloy AZ91D 319
X. Chen, C. Ke, and N. Birbilis

Oxidation and Corrosion Behavior of Non-Flammable Magnesium Alloys Containing Ca and Y 325
B. You, Y. Kim, C. Yim, and H. Kim

Corrosion Behavior of Magnesium Alloys Containing Sn and Zn 331
C. Yim, S. Woo, J. Yang, and B. You

Effect of Surface Condition on the Localized Corrosion Behavior of Magnesium Alloy AZ31B 335
Z. Cano, J. Kish, and J. McDermid

Formation of Self-Assembled Monolayer on Cerium Conversion Coated AZ31 Mg Alloy 341
S. Salman, N. Akira, K. Kuroda, and M. Okido

Effects of Current Density on Microstructure and Corrosion Property of Coating on AZ31 Mg Alloy Processed via Plasma Electrolytic Oxidation 345
K. Lee, F. Einkhah, M. Sani, Y. Ko, and D. Shin

Corrosion-Stress Relaxation Effects on Tensile Properties of an AZ61 Magnesium Alloy 351
H. Martin, C. Walton, K. Bruce, A. Hicks, M. Horstemeyer, W. Whittington, and P. Wang

Corrosion Behavior of Friction Stir Welded AZ31 Joints for Automotive Applications 357
X. Zhang, Z. Cano, B. Wilson, J. Kish, and J. McDermid

Biomedical Applications

Development of a Generalised Understanding of Environmentally-Assisted Degradation of Magnesium-Aluminium Alloys 365
N. Winzer, H. Höpfel, and P. Casajus

Coating Systems for Biodegradable Magnesium Applications 371
J. Seitz, R. Eifler, M. Vaughan, C. Seal, M. Hyland, and H. Maier

Improvement of Cytocompatibility of Magnesium Alloy ZM21 by Surface Modification 375
A. Witecka, A. Yamamoto, and W. Swieszkowski

Cytocompatibility of Mg Alloys and the Effect of Cells on Their Degradation in Biological Environment 381
A. Yamamoto and Y. Kohyamda

Alloy Design

In-Situ Neutron Diffraction Study of Aging in Alloy ZK60A 389
S. Agnew, C. Calhoun, and B. Clausen

Development of a High Strength Ductile Wrought Mg-Zn Based Alloy 395
L. Ma, T. Sasaki, T. Nakata, T. Ohkubo, K. Hono, and S. Kamado

Significant Precipitation Strengthening in Extruded Mg-Sn-Zn Alloys 401
T. Sasaki, F. Elsayed, T. Nakata, S. Kamado, T. Ohkubo, and K. Hono

Al and Zn Impurity Diffusion in Binary and Ternary Magnesium Solid-Solutions 407
C. Kammerer, N. Kulkarni, R. Warmack, and Y. Sohn

Formation and Evolution of Intermetallic Phases in the Mg-Nd-Zn-Zr System 413
K. Peng, J. Zhang, Z. Zhang, and Q. Li

Light-Metal Matrix (Nano)-Composites

Microstructure-Property Relationships I

An Insight into Processing and Characteristics of Magnesium Based Composites 423
M. Gupta and W. Wong

Hot Extruded Carbon Nanotube Reinforced Magnesium Matrix Composites and Its Microstructure, Mechanical and Corrosion Properties 429
H. Mindivan, A. Efe, and E. Kayali

Hardening and Softening Processes in AJ51 Magnesium Alloy Reinforced with Short Saffil Fibres 435
Z. Trojanova, G. Farkas, K. Máthis, and P. Lukac

Microstructure-Property Relationships II: Modeling and Advanced Characterization

Fabrication and Tensile Properties of Al2O3 Particle and Fibre Hybrid Magnesium (AM60)-Based Composites 443
X. Zhang, Q. Zhang, H. Hu, and X. Nie

Enhancing Tensile and Compressive Strength of AZ41 Magnesium Alloy by Adding Nano-Sized Al2O3 449
M. Alam and A. Hamouda

Phase-Field Modeling of Solidification in Light-Metal Matrix Nanocomposites 455
T. Pusztai, L. Rátkai, A. Szállás, and L. Granasy

Advanced Characterization of Metal Matrix Nano-Composites 461
M. Maher and L. Williams

Emerging Processes

Achieving Uniform Distribution and Dispersion of a High Percentage Nanoparticles in Mg18Sn Matrix by Solidification Processing 467
L. Chen, J. Peng, J. Xu, H. Choi, and X. Li

Effect of Nano-Reinforcement on Properties of Cast Mg-Al Alloy AZ91 471
M. Mahmoud, I. El-Mahallawi, and R. Rashad

In-Situ Synthesis and Novel Additions

Ceramic Dispersions in Metal Castings Created by Direct Injection of a Liquid Organic Precursor into the Melt 479
R. Sudarshan

Magnesium Technology 2013


Corrosion and Adhesion Properties of Cerium-Based Conversion Coatings on Magnesium Alloys 487
S. Maddela and M. O'Keefe

Corrosion of Ultrasonic Spot Weldbonds of Magnesium to Steel 491
T. Pan, Z. Feng, M. Santella, and J. Chen

Friction Stir Back Extrusion of Mg AZ31B-F: A Preliminary Investigation 497
J. Milner and F. Abu-Farha

Impurity Diffusion Coefficients of Al and Zn in Mg Determined from Solid-to-Solid Diffusion Couples 505
C. Kammerer, N. Kulkarni, R. Warmack, K. Perry, I. Belova, G. Murch, and Y. Sohn

Microstructure Evolution and Mechanical Behavior of Mg-10Gd-3Y-0.4Zr Alloy Processed by ECAP at High Temperature 511
Y. Zhou, D. Li, X. Zeng, Y. Wu, and W. Ding

The USAMP Magnesium Front End Research and Development Project – Results of the Magnesium "Demonstration" Structure 517
J. Forsmark, M. Li, X. Su, D. Wagner, J. Zindel, A. Luo, J. Quinn, R. Verma, Y. Wang, S. Logan, S. Bilkhu, and R. McCune

Author Index 525

Subject Index 529

“The Magnesium Technology Symposium, the event on which this impressive collection is based, is one of the largest yearly gatherings of magnesium specialists in the world.”  (Metall, 1 Octoer 2014)