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Magnesium Technology 2016


The Magnesium Technology Symposium, the event on which this collection is based, is one of the largest yearly gatherings of magnesium specialists in the world. Papers represent all aspects of the field, ranging from primary production to applications to recycling. Moreover, papers explore everything from basic research findings to industrialization. Magnesium Technology 2016 covers a broad spectrum of current topics, including alloys and their properties; cast products and processing; wrought products and processing; forming, joining, and machining; corrosion and surface finishing; ecology; and structural applications. In addition, there is coverage of new and emerging applications. The collection includes more than 50 papers.

Preface xi

About the Editors xiii

Session Chairs xxiii

Reviewer Pool xxv

Keynote Session

Challenges for Implementation of Magnesium into More Applications 5
K.U Kainer

Development of Magnesium Alloys for High Speed Trains in China 7
Eric Nyberg, Jian Peng, and Neale R Neelameggham

Korea’s R&D Activities towards the Application of Wrought Mg Alloys 9
Nack J Kim

Fascinating LPSO-Structured Mg Alloys 11
Eiji Abe

Developments in High Magnesium-Content Bulk Metallic Glasses and Future Possibilities 13
Kevin J Laws, Karl F Shamlaye, Jorg F Loffler, and Michael Ferry

Solidification and Casting

In Situ Synchrotron Radiation Diffraction of the Solidification of Mg-Dy(-Zr) Alloys 17
Domonkos Tolnai, Peter Staron, Andreas Staeck, Helmut Eckerlebe, Norbert Schell, Martin Muller, Joachim Grobner, and Norbert Hort

As Solidified Microstructure Investigation of Mg15Y and MgxYyGd (x+y=15 wt.%) Ternary Alloys 23
G Szakacs, C.L Mendis, D Tolnai, M Vlcek, F Lukac, I Stulikova, B Smola, M Wolff, R Schmid-Fetzer, N Schell, K.U Kainer, and N Hort

Development of the New High Shear Technology for Continuous Processing of Mg-Alloys for Ingot Casting 29
Jayesh B Patel, Peter Lloyd, Guosheng Peng, and Zhongyun Fan

Dendrite Morphology and Growth Orientation of Magnesium Alloys: Simulation by Phase-Field and 3-D Characterization by Synchrotron X-Ray Tomography 35
Manhong Yang, Shoumei Xiong, and Zhipeng Guo

Influence of Hot Isostatic Processing on the Microstructure and Tensile Behavior of HPDC AM50 41
Erin Deda and John Allison

Microsegregation in High Pressure Die Cast AM70 47
T.D Berman, E Deda, J Miao, M Li, and J.E Allison

Predicting Solidification Properties of Magnesium by Molecular Dynamics Simulations 53
Ebrahim Asad and Mohsen Asle Zaeem

Keynote Session Part II and Primary Production and Recycling

A Perspective: Potential Growth in the Global Magnesium Industry – Where Is Our Research Leading Us? 59
Martyn Alderman

Study on Mechanism of Magnesia Production by Reversion Reaction Process in Vacuum 61
Yang Tian, Bao-qiang Xu, Cheng-bo Yang, Bin Yang, Da-chun Liu, Tao Qu, and Yong-nian Dai

Thermodynamic Description of Reactions between Mg and CaO 67
Rainer Schmid-Fetzer, Artem Kozlov, Bjorn Wiese, Chamini L Mendis, Domonkos Tolnai, Karl U Kainer, and Norbert Hort

Atomic-Level Mechanisms of Magnesium Oxidation 73
Sandra Gardonio, Mattia Fanetti, Matjaz Valant, and Dmytro Orlov

Alloy Development, Diffusion and Joining

Development of Mg-Al-Sn-Si Alloys Using a CALPHAD Approach 79
Andrew Klarner, Weihua Sun, Janet Meier, and Alan Luo

Lattice Ordering and Microstructure of Ultra-High Strength Mg-Ca-Zn Alloys 83
Alok Singh, Althaf B Dudekula, Naoko Ikeo, Hidetoshi Somekawa, and Toshiji Mukai

Pre-Straining Effect on Precipitation Behaviour of AZ31B 89
Panthea Sepehrband, Matthew Lee, and Aaron Burns

The Effect of Ageing on the Compressive Deformation of Mg-Sn-Zn-Na Alloy 93
Ehsan Bahrami Motlagh, Alireza Ghaderi, Sitarama Raju Kada, Peter A Lynch, and Matthew R Barnett

First-Principles Study of Diffusion Coefficients of Alloy Elements in Dilute Mg Alloys 97
Bi-Cheng Zhou, Shun-Li Shang, Yi Wang, and Zi-Kui Liu

Study of ZE10 Magnesium Alloy Welded Joints Produced with Disk Laser 103
Miroslav Sahul and Martin Sahul

Similar and Dissimilar Ultrasonic Spot Welding of a Rare-Earth Containing ZEK100 Magnesium Alloy 109
A Macwan and D.L Chen

Effect of Filler Wires on Cracking along Edges of Magnesium Welds 115
Tao Yuan, Xiao Cha, and Sindo Kou

Magnesium-Rare Earth Alloys

Hot Tearing in Magnesium-Rare Earth Alloys 123
Mark Easton, Serge Gavras, Mark Gibson, Suming Zhu, Jian-Feng Nie, and Trevor Abbott

Hot Tearing Susceptibility of Mg-5Nd-xZn Alloys 129
Francesco D’Elia, Domonkos Tolnai, Chamini Lakshi Mendis, and Norbert Hort

Solid Solution Strengthening in Mg–Gd Alloys 135
Yuling Xu, Zheng Ren, Yuanding Huang, Karl Kainer, and Norbert Hort

Effects of Homogenization on Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of a ZE20 Mg Alloy Processed by Indirect Extrusion 141
Z McClelland, B Li, S.J Horstemeyer, M.F Horstemeyer, and A.L Oppedal

Age-Hardening of Dual Phase Mg-Sc Alloy at 573 K 147
Yukiko Ogawa, Daisuke Ando, Yuji Sutou, and Junichi Koike

The Structure of ” and ’ in an Aged Mg-Nd Alloy 151
Ellen L.S Solomon and Emmanuelle A Marquis

LPSO Alloys and Composites

Solid Solution Hardening in Mg-Gd-TM (TM=Ag, Zn and Zr) Alloys: An Integrated Density Functional Theory and Electron Work Function Study 157
William Yi Wang, Shun Li Shang, Yi Wang, Hongyeun Kim, Kristopher A Darling, Laszlo J Kecskes, Suveen N Mathaudhu, Xi Dong Hui, and Zi-Kui Liu

Microstructure and Mechanical Properties New Magnesium-Zinc-Gadolinium Alloys 159
Sankaranarayanan Seetharaman, Sravya Tekumalla, Bhavesh Lalwani, Hardik Patel, Nguyen Quy Bau, and Manoj Gupta

Effects of Alloying Elements on Microstructures and Mechanical Properties of Mg-Gd-Zn-Ca Alloys 165
Hyunkyu Lim, Youngkyun Kim, Bonghwan Kim, Daeguen Kim, Young-Ok Yoon, and Shae K Kim

Creep of a Mg-Zn-Y Alloy at Elevated Temperatures 169
Weiwei Hu, Zhiqing Yang, Jianfang Liu, and Hengqiang Ye

An Insight into Use of Hollow Fly Ash Particles on the Properties of Magnesium 175
Gururaj Parande, Vyasaraj Manakari, and Manoj Gupta

Role of SiC in Grain Refinement of Aluminum-Free Mg-Zn Alloys 177
Jian Gu, Yuanding Huang, Karl Ulrich Kainer, and Norbert Hort

Hot Deformation and Processing Map in an Mg-Zn-Mn-Y Alloy 183
N Tahreen, D.F Zhang, F.S Pan, X.Q Jiang, D.Y Li, and D.L Chen

Twinning and Plasticity

What is in a Strain Hardening “Plateau”? 189
Sean R Agnew, Christopher A Calhoun, and Jishnu J Bhattacharyya

Asymmetric Growth of Tensile Twins in Magnesium 195
Zhe Li, Chengliang Li, Ben Xu, and Wei Liu

Non-Dislocation Based Room Temperature Plastic Deformation Mechanism in Magnesium 199
Bo-Yu Liu, Zhi-Wei Shan, and Evan Ma

Investigation of the Plastic Flow Field in Magnesium Alloy AZ31B in Three Orientations for Empirical Penetration Models 203
Tyrone L Jones, John P Riegel, III, Christopher S Meredith, Kris Darling, Jim Catalano, and Anthony Roberts

Deformation Behavior of Mg Single Crystals Compressed along c-Axis 209
Kelvin Y Xie, Zafir Alam, Alexander Caffee, and Kevin J Hemker

The Use of Acoustic Emission and Neutron Diffraction to Reveal the Active Deformation Mechanisms in Polycrystalline Magnesium and Comparison to Theoretical Modeling 213
Jan apek, Kristian Mathis, and Tomaš Kraj ak

Strain Rate Dependent Deformation and Failure Process of Magnesium Foams 217
Peifeng Li

Exploration of Thin-Walled Magnesium Alloy Tube Extrusion for Improved Crash Performance 223
Robert W Klein, Bruce W Williams, Jonathan McKinley, John R Einhorn, and Sean R Agnew

High Temperature Tensile Behaviors and Deformation Mechanisms of Mg-x%Al Alloys 229
Jia-xing Ji, Fu-bo Bian, Min He, Tian-gang Niu, and Jun Qiao

Texture and Formability

In-Situ EBSD Observations of Recrystallization and Texture Evolution in Rolled Mg-2Zn-xCe (wt.%) 237
Ajith Chakkedath, David Hernandez Escobar, Jan Bohlen, Sangbong Yi, Dietmar Letzig, and Carl Boehlert

Non-Basal Texture Evolution during Annealing of Cold-Deformed Magnesium Alloy 239
Abu Syed Humaun Kabir, Jing Su, In-Ho Jung, and Stephen Yue

On Modeling the Mechanical Behavior and Texture Evolution of Rolled AZ31 Mg for Complex Loadings Involving Strain Path Changes 245
Nitin Chandola, Crystal Pasiliao, Oana Cazacu, and Benoit Revil-Baudard

Formability of Extruded Magnesium Alloy Sheets with Different Textures 251
Jan Bohlen, Oliver Schlung, Sven Gall, Soren Muller, and Dietmar Letzig

Prediction of Magnesium Alloy Formability: The Role of Texture 257
V.M Miller, T.D Berman, I.J Beyerlein, and T.M Pollock

Texture Evolution and Mechanical Properties of Mg-Li Alloy during Thermo-Mechanical Process 263
Y Zou, Y Zhang, Y Zhao, S.S Xu, H Guo, M.L Zhang, and Z.W Zhang

Effect of Dynamic Recrystallization on Microstructure Evolution and Texture Weakening during Annealing of High Speed Rolled AZ31 Magnesium Alloy Sheets 267
Jing Su, Abu Syed H Kabir, Mehdi Sanjari, In-Ho Jung, and Stephen Yue


Numerical Investigation of the AE44-Mild Steel Galvanic Structural Joint 275
N Muthegowda, B Gholami Bazehhour, and K.N Solanki

Fabrication of a Superhydrophobic Film with Self-Cleaning Property on Magnesium Alloy and Its Corrosion Resistance Properties 279
Meng Zhou, Xiaolu Pang, and Kewei Gao

The Surface Films and Their Possible Roles in Mg Corrosion 285
Guang-Ling Song and Paul E Gannon

Micro-Arc Oxide Film of Aluminum Coating Pre-Sprayed on AZ31 Magnesium Alloy 291
Suyuan Yang , Lin Zhou, and Xingwang Cheng

Poster Session

Study on Fatigue Mechanism of Mg-0.6at%Y Alloy by Cyclic Tensile Test 299
Qinghuan Huo, Daisuke Ando, Junichi Koike, and Yuji Sutou

Mechanical Response of a Gravity Cast Mg-9Al-1Zn-0.2Sc Alloy at Strain Rates from 10¯ to 10³/s 305
R.B Blessington, A.D Brown, A.Lock, J.P Escobedo, P.J Hazell, D East, and M.Z Quadir

Magnesium-based Biodegradable Implants

Materials and Processing / Surface Modification and Corrosion

Fabrication, Testing and Performance of Rare Earth-Containing Magnesium Biodegradable Metals 315
Dong Bian and Yufeng Zheng

Manufacturing of Osteosynthesis Systems Made of Magnesium Alloy AZ91 317
Britta Hering, Andi Wippermann, Tobias Morke, Thilo Grove, and Berend Denkena

Absorbable Filament Technologies: Wire-Drawing to Enable Next-Generation Medical Devices 323
Adam J Griebel and Jeremy E Schaffer

Plasma Surface Modification of Magnesium-Based and Related Materials 329
Paul K Chu

Degradation of MgF2-Coated and Uncoated MgNd2 Specimens in Contact with Nasal Mucosa 331
Rainer Eifler, Martin Durisin, Christian Klose, Thomas Lenarz, and Hans Jurgen Maier

Flow Induced Biodegradation Behavior of Magnesium Metal: From Bioreactors to In Vivo Models 337
Juan Wang, Nan Huang, Yeoheung Yun, and Jagannathan Sankar

Corrosion / Market and Clinic

Understanding Corrosion-Assisted Cracking of Magnesium Alloys for Bioimplant Applications 343
R.K Singh Raman and Shervin Eslami Harandi

In Vitro Corrosion and Cytocompatibility Properties of Mg-2Gd-X(Ag, Ca) Alloys 347
Yiyi Lu, Yuanding Huang, Frank Feyerabend, Regine Willumeit-Romer, Karl Urich Kainer, and Norbert Hort

Appropriate Corrosion-Fatigue Testing of Magnesium Alloys for Temporary Bioimplant Applications 353
Shervin Eslami Harandi and R.K Singh Raman

Standardized Guidance for the Preclinical Evaluation of Absorbable Metal Implants 357
Byron K Hayes

The Industrial Challenges of Manufacturing Bioabsorbable Magnesium 361
Robert Thornton, Paul Lyon, I Syed, and M Turski

Strip Casting of Light Metals

Strip Casting Process

Microstructure Investigations of Inverse Segregations in Twin-Roll Cast AZ31 Strips 369
Christina Krbetschek, Franz Berge, Matthias Oswald, Madlen Ullmann, and Rudolf Kawalla

Strip Casting: Properties

Substitution of Rare Earth Elements in Magnesium Alloys for the Sheet Production via Twin Roll Casting 377
G Kurz, T.Petersen, I Portugal Gonzales, R Hoppe, J Bohlen, and D Letzig

Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Ca Containing AZX310 Alloy Sheets Produced via Twin Roll Casting Technology 383
Sangbong Yi, Jun Ho Park, Dietmar Letzig, Oh Duck Kwon, Karl Ulrich Kainer, and Jae Joong Kim

Poster Session

Microstructure and Properties of SiCp/Al Matrix Composite Strip Fabricating by Twin-Roll Casting Process 391
Huagui Huang, Zengwei Lv, Shengpeng Song, and Fengshan Du

Author Index 397

Subject Index 401