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Magnetospheric Currents

Magnetospheric Currents

Thomas A. Potemra (Editor)

ISBN: 978-1-118-66413-1

Mar 2013, American Geophysical Union

357 pages

Select type: O-Book

Description

Published by the American Geophysical Union as part of the Geophysical Monograph Series, Volume 28.

When viewed from outer space, the earth's magnetic field does not resemble a simple dipole but is severely distorted into a comet-shaped configuration by the continuous flow of solar wind plasma. A complicated system of currents flows within this distorted magnetic field configuration called the "magnetosphere." For example, the compression of the geomagnetic field by the solar wind plasma on the dayside of the earth is associated with a large-scale current flowing across the geomagnetic field lines, called the Chapman-Ferraro or magnetopause current. The magnetospheric system includes large-scale currents that flow in the "tail," "Birkeland" currents that flow along geomagnetic field lines into and away from the two auroral regions, the ring current that flows at high altitudes around the equator of the earth, and a complex system of currents that flows completely within the layers of the ionosphere, the earth's ionized atmosphere. The intensities of these various currents reach millions of amperes and are closely related to solar activity.

PREFACE  ix

EARLY HISTORY

KRISTIAN BIRKELAND: THE MAN AND rrHE SCIENTIST
Alv Egeland  1

SYDNEY CHAPMAN AND HIS EARLY STUDIES OF MAGNETIC DISTURBANCES
Masahisa Sugiura  17

THE EVOLUTION OF ARGUHENTS REGARDING THE EXISTENCE OF FIELD-ALIGNED CURRENTS
A. J. Dessler  22

INTRODUCTION TO MAGNETOSPHERIC CURRENTS

THE MAGNETOSPHERIC CURRENTS: AN INTRODUCTION
S.-I. Akasofu  29

INTRODUCTION TO THE TOPOLOGY OF MAGNETOSPHERIC CURRENT SYSTEMS
W. P. Olson  49

FUNDAMENTALS OF CURRENT DESCRIPTION
Vytenis M. Vasyliunas  63

SURFACE OBSERVATIONS

ESTIMATION OF ELECTRIC FIELDS AND CURRENTS FROM GROUND-BASED MAGNETOMETER DATA
Y. Kamide and A. D. Richmond  67

ELECTRIC FIELDS AND CURRENTS ASSOCIATED WITH ACTIVE AURORA
W. Baumjohann and H. J. Opgenoorth  77

POLAR CAP CURRENT SYSTEMS
E. Friis-Christensen  86

NEAR-SPACE OBSERVATIONS

RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN FIELD-ALIGNED CURRENTS, ELECTRIC FIELDS,
AND PARTICLE PRECIPITATION AS OBSERVED BY DYNAMICS EXPLORER-2 96
M. Sugiura, T. Iyemori, R. A. Hoffman, N. C. Maynard, J. L. Burch, and J. D. Winningham  96

A STUDY OF HIGH LATITUDE CURRENT SYSTEMS DURING QUIET GEOMAGNETIC
CONDITIONS USING MAGSAT DATA
J. R. Burrows, T. J. Hughes, and Margaret D. Wilson  104

FIELD-ALIGNED CURRENTS DURING NORTHWARD IMF
Takesi Iijima  115

THREE-DIMENSIONAL BIRKELAND-IONOSPHERIC CURRENT SYSTEM, DETERMINED FROM MAGSAT
L. J. Zanetti, W. Baumjohann, T. A. Potemra, and P. F. Bythrow  123

VARIATION OF THE AURORAL BIRKELAND CURRENT PATTERN ASSOCIATED WITH
THE NORTH-SOUTH COMPONENT OF THE IMF
P. F. Bythrow, T. A. Potemra, and L. J. Zanetti  131

DISTRIBUTION OF AURORA AND IONOSPHERIC CURRENTS OBSERVED
SIMULTANEOUSLY ON A GLOBAL SCALE
J. D. Craven, Y. Kamide, L. A. Frank, S.-I. Akasofu, and M. Sugiura  137

DISTANT SPACE OBSERVATIONS

CURRENTS IN THE EARTH'S MAGNETOTAIL
L. A. Frank, C. Y. Huang, and T. E. Eastman  147

CHARACTERISTICS OF THE CROSS-TAIL CURRENT IN THE EARTH'S MAGNETOTAIL
A. T. Y. Lui  158

FIELD-ALIGNED CURRENTS NEAR THE MAGNETOSPHERE BOUNDARY
Edward W. Hones, Jr.  171

IONOSPHERIC EFFECTS

MODELS OF AURORAL-ZONE CONDUCTANCES
Patricia H. Reiff  180

COORDINATED GROUND AND SATELLITE OBSERVATIONS OF CONDUCTIVITIES,
ELECTRIC FIELDS, AND FIELD-ALIGNED CURRENTS
R. M. Robinson  192

THEORY AND MODELS

MAGNETOSPHERIC DYNAMO PROCESSES
David P. Stern  200

MAGNETOSPHERIC TOPOLOGY OF FIELDS AND CURRENTS
Walter J. Heikkila  208

A NEW THEORY OF SOURCES OF BIRKELAND CURRENTS
K. D. Cole  223

DIELECTRIC AND PERMEABILITY EFFECTS IN COLLISIONLESS PLASMAS
K. D. Cole  234

FIELD-ALIGNED CURRENT SHEETS AS TANGENTIAL AND ROTATIONAL DISCONTINUITIES
G. Atkinson  241

ELECTRODYNAMICS OF CONVECTION IN THE INNER MAGNETOSPHERE
R. W. Spiro and R. A. Wolf  247

COUPLING OF BIRKELAND CURRENT RINGS
G. L. Siscoe and N. U. Crooker  260

REGION ONE BIRKELAND CURRENTS CONNECTING TO SUNWARD CONVECTING FLUX TUBES
J. L. Karty, R. A. Wolf, and R. W. Spiro  269

CORRECTED GEOMAGNETIC COORDINATES FOR EPOCH 1980
Georg Gustafsson  276

HIGH-LATITUDE FIELD-ALIGNED CURRENTS PATTERNS IN CONNECTION
WITH MAGNETOSPHERIC STRUCTURE
Y. I. Feldstejn, R. G. Afonina, B. A. Belav, A. E. Levitin, D. S. Faermark, and V. Y. Gaidukov  284

PLASMA INSTABILITIES

ELECTRIC FIELDS AND CURRENTS OBSERVED BY S3-2 IN 'fHE VICINITY OF DISCRETE ARCS
William J. Burke  294

ASSOCIATION OF FIELD-ALIGNED CURRENTS WITH SMALL-SCALE AURORAL PHENOMENA
Cynthia Cattell  304

THREE-DIMENSIONAL POTENTIAL STRUCTURE ASSOCIATED WITH BIRKELAND CURRENTS
Lars Block  315

THE ROLE OF CURRENTS IN PLASMA REDISTRIBUTION 325
G. Atkinson  325

THE ROLE OF FIELD-ALIGNED CURRENT FILAMENTS IN GENERATING MORNING
SECTOR PI 1 PULSATIONS AT SUB-AURORAL LATITUDES 331
M. J. Engebretson, S. J. Solberg, L. J. Cahill, Jr., and R. L. Arnoldy  331

CURRENT SYSTEMS IN OTHER MAGNETOSPHERES

ROTATIONALLY-INDUCED BIRKELAND CURRENT SYSTEMS
T. W. Hill  340

DYNAMICS OF FIELD-ALIGNED CURRENT SOURCES AT EARTH AND JUPITER
D. D. Barbosa  350