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Magnetospheric Substorms

Magnetospheric Substorms

Joseph R. Kan (Editor), Thomas A. Potemra (Editor), Susumu Kokubun (Editor), Takesi Iijima (Editor)

ISBN: 978-1-118-66398-1 March 2013 American Geophysical Union 476 Pages

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Published by the American Geophysical Union as part of the Geophysical Monograph Series, Volume 64.

This volume on Magnetospheric Substorms is a compilation of papers invited and contributed to the Chapman Conference on Magnetospheric Substorms held September 3–7, 1990, in Hakone, Japan. The Conference was attended by 149 researchers from 13 countries: Japan, the United States, the U.S.S.R., the United Kingdom, China, Sweden, Norway, Netherlands, France, Finland, Gennany, Denmark, and Canada.
Each chapter is organized with an intentional mixture of observational and theoretical papers on similar topics to emphasize the importance of the observation-simulation-theory closure. Of equal importance is the global connection in substorm research. In the past, substorm research has focused on understanding the substorm signatures in the inosphere and in the plasma sheet separately. Future progress may well depend on paying greater attention to the global connection between the ionosphere and the plasma sheet.

PREFACE
J. Kan, T. A. Potemra, S. Kokubun, and T. Iijima xiii

1. INTRODUCTION
Development of Magnetospheric Physics
S. I. Akasofu 3

The Beginning ofSubstorm Research
D. P. Stern 11

2. OVERVIEWS
Physics of Magnetospheric Substorms: A Review
M. I. Pudovkin 17

Substorm Current Systems and Auroral Dynamics
Y. I. Feldstem 29

A Synthesis Model for Magnetospheric Substorms
A. T. Y. Lui 43

Observational Constraints for Substorm Models
G. Rostoker 61

Synthesizing A Global Model of Substorms
J. R. Kan 73

3. SUBSTORM CURRENTS
An Empirical Model of Substorm-Related Magnetic Field Variations at Synchronous Orbit
T. Nagai 91

The Relationship Between Ion and Electron Precipitation Patterns and Field-ABgned Current Systems
During a Substorm
T. Iijima, M. Watanabe, T. A. Potemra,L. J. Zanetti, and F. J. Rich 97

Birkeland-Ionosphere Currents of the Magnetospheric Storm Circuit
L. J. Zaneni, T. A. Potemra, T. Iijima, andW Baumjohann 111

Simultaneous Observations of the Westward ElectroJet and the Cross-TaU Current Sheet During
Substorms
R. E. Lopez, H. Spence, and C. I. Meng 123

Tall Current Disruption in the Geosynchronous Region
S. Ohtani, K. Takahashi,L. J. Zanetti, T. A. Potemra,R. W McEntire, and T. Iijima 131


4. PLASMA SHEET DYNAMICS
Heating and Fast Flows in the Near-Earth Tall
W. Baumjohann 141

The Earthward Edge of the Plasma Sheet in Magnetospheric Substroms
D. N. Baker and T. I. Pulkkinen 147

Association Between Tail Substorm Phenomena and Magnetic Separatrix Distortion
L. R. Lyons 161

Three Dimensional Numerical Simulations of Magnetotail Reconnection
M. Scholer, A. Otto, and G. Gedbois 171

Substorm Features in MHO Simulations of Magnetotall Dynamics
J. Birn and M. Hesse 177

A Magnetosphere Wags the Tall Model of Substorms
G. Atkinson 191

Role of the Near Earth Plasma Sheet at Substorms
A. Roux 201

Properties of the Geotall Plasma Sheet-Theory and Observations
C. J. Owen, S. W. H. Cowley, and I. G. Richardson 215

Tradng and Acceleration ofMid-'Thll Ions During Substorms
D. C. Delcourt 225

5. AURORAL SUBSTORM MORPHOLOGY
Auroral Substorm Observed by UV-Imager on Akebono
E. Kaneda and T. Yamamoto 235

Viking Optical Substorm Signatures
J.S. Murphree, R. D. Elphinstone, L. L. Cogger, and D. Hearn 241

Observations ofChanges to the Auroral Distribution Prior to Substorm Onset
R. D. Elphinstone, J. S. Murphree, LL. Cogger,D. Hearn, M. G. Henderson, and R.Lundin 257

EXOS-D Observations of Charged Particle Precipitation and Acceleration Process
T. Mukai, N. Kaya, and W. Miyake 277

Auroral and Energetic Particle Signatures During A Substorm With Multiple Expansion
R. Nakamura, T. Oguti, T. Yamamoto, S. Kokubun, D. N. Balcer, andR. D. Belian 285

Auroral Substorms
W. J. Heikkila 295

Toward a BeUer Understanding of the Global Auroral Electrodynamics Through Numerical Modeling Studies
G. Marklund and L. Blomberg 305

6. CHARACTERISTICS OF SUBSTORM PHASES
Statistical Features of the Substorm Expansion Phase as Observed by the AMPrEICCE Spacecraft
I. A. Daglis, E. T. Sarris, w: I. Axford, G. Kremser, B. Wilken, and G. Gloeckler 323

Auroral Signatures of Substorm Recovery Phase: A Case Study
T. I. Pulkkinen, R. J. Pellinen, H. E. J. Koskinen, H. J. Opgenoorth, J. S. Murphree, V. Petrov, A. Zaitzev, and E. Friis-Christensen 333

A Statistical Study of Substorm Onset Conditions at Geostationary Orbit
A. Korth, Z. r: Pu, G. Kremser, and A. Roux 343

7. SUBSTORM ELECTRODYNAMICS
The Contribution of the Boundary Layer EMF to Magnetospheric Substorms
R. Lundin, 1. Sandahl, J. Woeh, and R. Elphinstone 355

Polar Cap Convection: Steady State and Dynamic Effects
J. J. Moses and P. Reiff 375

Polar Hiss
T. Ondoh 387

Driven and Unloading E1ectroJets During the Main Phase of a Magnetic Storm
K. Lassen and E. Friis-Christensen 399

Occurrence of Magnetic Flux 'fransfer Events During Substorm
H. Kawano, S. Kokubun, and K. Takahashi 409

Substorm Electrodynamics
D. Stern 421

Characteristics of the Fields and Particle Acceleration During Rapidly Induced 18iI Thinning
and Reconnection
R. M. Winglee 425

The Development of Field-Aligned Currents and Auroral Particle Acceleration During Active Times
P.B. Dusenbery, R.M. Wmglee, and G.A.Dulk 437

A Nonlinear Dynamic Analogue Model of Geomagnetic Activity
A. J. Klimas, D. N. Baker, D. A. Roberts, and D. H. Fairfield 449

Synergetic Approach to Substorm Phenomenon
Z. Voros 461

Ring Current Ion With Mlcropulsations During the Recovery Phase of Geomagnetic Storms
X. Li, A. Chan, and M. Hudson 469