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Mammal Societies

Mammal Societies

Tim Clutton-Brock

ISBN: 978-1-119-09532-3

May 2016, Wiley-Blackwell

760 pages

In Stock

$70.00

Description

The book aims to integrate our understanding of mammalian societies into a novel synthesis that is relevant to behavioural ecologists, ecologists, and anthropologists. It adopts a coherent structure that deals initially with the characteristics and strategies of females, before covering those of males, cooperative societies and hominid societies. It reviews our current understanding both of the structure of societies and of the strategies of individuals; it combines coverage of relevant areas of theory with coverage of interspecific comparisons, intraspecific comparisons and experiments; it explores both evolutionary causes of different traits and their ecological consequences; and it integrates research on different groups of mammals with research on primates and humans and attempts to put research on human societies into a broader perspective.

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Preface, xi

Acknowledgements, xiii

1 Social evolution, 1

1.1 Origins, 1

1.2 Sociality and mating systems, 11

1.3 Reproductive competition, 13

1.4 Mate choice, 17

1.5 Parental care, 20

1.6 Cooperation, 24

1.7 Loaded labels, 34

References, 35

2 Female sociality, 47

2.1 Introduction, 47

2.2 Contrasts in female sociality, 47

2.3 Benefits of grouping, 53

2.4 Costs of grouping, 60

2.5 Sociality and fitness, 63

2.6 Comparative sociality, 65

2.7 The distribution of female sociality, 78

2.8 Group coordination, 79

2.9 Consequences of female sociality, 80

3 Female dispersal and philopatry, 94

3.1 Introduction, 94

3.2 Variation in female philopatry and dispersal, 96

3.3 Benefits of philopatry, 102

3.4 Benefits of dispersing, 104

3.5 Species differences in female philopatry, 111

3.6 Social and ecological consequences of female philopatry, 113

References, 115

4 Female mating decisions, 123

4.1 Introduction, 123

4.2 Direct benefits of mate choice to females, 128

4.3 Genetic benefits of mate choice to females, 128

4.4 Female mating preferences, 130 Maturity, 130

4.5 Mate choice copying, 142

4.6 Partner number and post-copulatory mate choice, 142

4.7 Variation in mate choice and partner number, 145

4.8 Consequences of female mating preferences, 146

References, 147

5 Maternal care, 156

5.1 Introduction, 156

5.2 The evolution of maternal care, 156

5.3 Prenatal investment, 162

5.4 Maternal effects, 166

5.5 Lactation and infant care, 170

5.6 Post-weaning investment, 176

5.7 Investment strategies, 180

5.8 Relationships between siblings, 182

5.9 Parent–offspring conflict, 185

5.10 Consequences of maternal care, 187

References, 188

6 Social development, 196

6.1 Introduction, 196

6.2 Social learning, 197

6.3 Social development, 203

6.4 Play, 204

6.5 Social knowledge, 205

6.6 Individual differences and personality, 210

6.7 Traditions, 212

References, 219

7 Communication, 226

7.1 Introduction, 226

7.2 Types of signal, 230

7.3 Signalling in theory and practice, 250

References, 255

8 Competition between females, 263

8.1 Introduction, 263

8.2 Competitive tactics, 267

8.3 Social structure and competition, 273

8.4 Conflict proliferation and limitation, 282

8.5 Consequences of female competition, 285

9 Cooperation between females, 298

9.1 Introduction, 298

9.2 Cooperation in different contexts, 298

9.3 Cheating in theory and practice, 322

9.4 The evolution of cooperation, 323

9.5 Consequences of cooperation, 324

References, 326

10 Mating systems, 333

10.1 Introduction, 333

10.2 Social monogamy, 335

10.3 Polygynous systems, 339

10.4 Genetic mating systems, 359

10.5 Consequences of polygyny, 360

11 Association between males, 373

11.1 Introduction, 373

11.2 Contrasts in the formation and structure of male groups, 373

11.3 Costs of association to males, 379

11.4 Benefits of association to males, 380

11.5 Kinship, familiarity, cooperation and hostility, 384

11.6 The size of male associations, 386

11.7 Contrasts in reproductive skew, 389

11.8 Consequences of male association, 391

References, 395

12 Male dispersal and its consequences, 401

12.1 Introduction, 401

12.2 Variation in dispersal rates by males, 401

12.3 The costs and benefits of dispersal to males,409

12.4 Secondary dispersal by males, 412

12.5 Sex differences in philopatry, 414

12.6 Dispersal distance, 416

12.7 The social and ecological consequences of male dispersal, 418

References, 421

13 Reproductive competition among males, 427

13.1 Introduction, 427

13.2 The benefits and costs of fighting, 427

13.3 Assessment and the evolution of maledisplays, 434

13.4 Adaptive fighting tactics, 445

13.5 Benefits and costs of mate guarding, 445

13.6 Adaptive guarding tactics, 447

13.7 Alternative tactics, 452

13.8 Sperm competition, 453

13.9 Consequences of reproductive competition between males, 456

References, 458

14 Relationships between males in multi-male groups, 466

14.1 Introduction, 466

14.2 The development of dominance, 467

14.3 Dominance and breeding success, 470

14.4 Reproductive skew in multi-male groups, 474

14.5 Dominance, condition and survival, 476

14.6 Coalitions and alliances, 477

14.7 Market models and the dynamics of supportive relationships, 482

14.8 Punishment, retaliation and reconciliation,482

14.9 The consequences of male hierarchies, 484

References, 486

15 Males and females, 493

15.1 Introduction, 493

15.2 Male mate choice, 494

15.3 Manipulation, 496

15.4 Coercion, 496

15.5 Female counter-strategies to male coercion,507

15.6 Male infanticide, 508

15.7 Female counter-strategies to male infanticide, 516

15.8 Post-copulatory sexual conflict, 521

15.9 Demographic consequences of sexual conflict, 521

References, 524

16 Paternal care, 532

16.1 Introduction, 532

16.2 The distribution of paternal care, 533

16.3 Control mechanisms, 543

16.4 Benefits and costs of paternal care, 545

16.5 Tactical investment, 547

16.6 Conflicts between parents, 548

16.7 Male care and the evolution of mating systems, 548

References, 551

17 Cooperative breeding, 557

17.1 Introduction, 557

17.2 Delayed dispersal, 562

17.3 Reproductive suppression, 564

17.4 Reproductive skew, 570

17.5 Benefits and costs of helping, 574

17.6 Division of labour, 580

17.7 Regulation of workload, 584

17.8 The evolution of cooperative breeding, 586

17.9 Consequences of cooperative breeding, 589

References, 594

18 Sex differences, 605

18.1 Introduction, 605

18.2 Body size, 606

18.3 Weaponry, 608

18.4 Ornaments, 610

18.5 Growth, 610

18.6 Nursing, 615

18.7 Social development, 618

18.8 Feeding ecology, 621

18.9 Mortality, 623

18.10 Sex ratios at birth, 626

18.11 Adult sex ratios, 631

References, 633

19 Hominins and humans, 643

19.1 Introduction, 643

19.2 Human evolution, 644

19.3 Life histories, 649

19.4 Sex differences, 653

19.5 Hominin and human societies, 663

19.6 Why us?, 671

References, 673

20 Human behaviour, 680

20.1 Introduction, 680

20.2 Mate choice, 681

20.3 Parental care, 687

20.4 Allo-parental care, 693

20.5 Cooperation, 698

20.6 The human condition, 713

References, 714

Index, 725