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Managing Research, Development and Innovation: Managing the Unmanageable, 3rd Edition

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Managing Research, Development and Innovation: Managing the Unmanageable, 3rd Edition

Ravi Jain, Harry C. Triandis, Cynthia W. Weick

ISBN: 978-0-470-91493-9 June 2010 416 Pages

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Description

Now fully revised and updated— the classic book on effective R&D management

"This thoughtful and detailed work outlines what is required in order to achieve the desired end results in a networked world where teamwork and collaboration are increasingly important to globally dispersed workforces."
—JOHN CHAMBERS, Chairman and CEO, Cisco

Praise for the Second Edition

"This is a superbly written book and could make an excellent reference and text for related university courses."
—E. LILE MURPHREE, JR., PHD, former Chairman, Department of Engineering Management, The George Washington University

"Provides a superb exposition of the role that social and psychological phenomena play in today's organizations."
—FRED E. FIEDLER, Professor of Psychology Emeritus, University of Washington, Seattle

As the economy shifts from producing goods to producing information, the role of researchers in shaping the future has become immense. By taking advantage of modern technology, the highly trained and predominantly autonomous researchers from around the globe collect and share information better than ever—yet, there is still a lack of an effective centralized structure for an R&D organization manager to integrate the efforts from many disparate individuals into a unified plan.

Managing Research, Development, and Innovation, Third Edition covers the management skills and leadership theories essential to generating products and excelling in today's global economy. Topics of interest include how to design jobs, organize hierarchies, resolve conflicts, motivate employees, and create an innovative work environment. Discover how superior management skills can increase funding, generate profit, and improve the effectiveness of technologically based organizations. This new revised edition:

  • Covers all aspects of the research and development process—with focus on the human management function
  • Includes two new chapters covering the innovation process critical to research and development of new products and services
  • Outlines the challenging issues related to diversity in science and technology organizations and provides insights as to how diversity can be used to enhance creativity

Managing Research, Development, and Innovation, Third Edition is the most complete, insightful book of its kind. Useful for professionals and graduate students alike, the text demonstrates in clear, straightforward prose how good management skills will shape the future.

Preface xiii

1 R&D Organizations and Research Categories 1

1.1 How Information can be Used 2

1.2 A Perspective on R&D Management 5

1.3 What is Research and Development? 6

1.4 Research Categories 8

1.5 What to Research 10

1.6 Emphasis on Basic Versus Applied Research 16

1.7 What is Unique About Managing R&D Organizations? 17

1.8 Summary 19

1.9 Questions for Class Discussion 19

2 Elements Needed for an R&D Organization 20

2.1 People 20

2.2 Specialization 22

2.3 Staffing 23

2.4 Ideas 24

2.5 Defects in Human Information Processing 28

2.6 Fads in Science 30

2.7 Communication Networks 31

2.8 The Innovation Process 34

2.9 Funds 34

2.10 A Culture for R&D Organizations 36

2.11 Not-Invented-Here Syndrome 38

2.12 Fit of Person and Job 40

2.13 Creative Tensions: Managing Antithesis and Ambiguity 41

2.14 Develop a Climate of Participation 44

2.15 Summary 45

2.16 Questions for Class Discussion 46

3 Creating a Productive and Effective R&D Organization 47

3.1 Organization Effectiveness 47

3.2 Who are the Inventors and Innovators? 52

3.3 Odd Characteristics of Inventors and Innovators 58

3.4 Researcher’s Relationship with Management and Peers 59

3.5 Formation of Teams 60

3.6 Generating New Ideas 64

3.7 Emphases on Aspects of Organizational Culture 68

3.8 Ethos of A Scientific Community 69

3.9 Summary 71

3.10 Questions for Class Discussion 71

4 Job Design and Organizational Effectiveness 72

4.1 Job Attributes 73

4.2 Physical Location and Communication 74

4.3 Career Paths 76

4.4 Dual and Triple Hierarchies 78

4.5 Centralization and Decentralization 80

4.6 Keeping the Researcher at the Innovation Stage 81

4.7 Job Design and Conflict 83

4.8 Summary 86

4.9 Questions for Class Discussion 87

5 Influencing People 88

5.1 Attitude Attitude Change 89

5.2 Findings from Attitude Research 90

5.3 Behavioral Science Division Case 92

5.4 Case Analysis 94

5.5 Communication Alternatives and Outcomes 95

5.6 Summary 101

5.7 Questions for Class Discussion 102

6 Motivation in R&D Organizations 103

6.1 A Model of Human Behavior 104

6.2 Changing the Reward System to Support Technical Careers 112

6.3 Structuring the Organization for Optimal Communication 113

6.4 Rewards and Motivation 114

6.5 Reward System Discussion 116

6.6 Sense of Control and Community 119

6.7 A Federal R&D Laboratory Case 121

6.8 Summary 122

6.9 Questions for Class Discussion 122

7 Dealing with Diversity in R&D Organizations 123

7.1 Assimilation and Multiculturalism 124

7.2 Understanding Culture 126

7.3 Cultural Differences 128

7.4 What Happens When People from Different Cultures Work Together? 129

7.5 Cultural Distance 130

7.6 Cultural Intelligence and Related Concepts 130

7.7 A Model for Diversity in Groups 132

7.8 The Status of Minorities in Work Groups 135

7.9 Dealing with People from Different Disciplines, Organizational Levels and Functions 136

7.10 Intercultural Training 136

7.11 Summary 139

7.12 Questions for Class Discussion 139

8 Leadership in R&D Organizations 140

8.1 Identifying Your Leadership Style 142

8.2 Theories of Leadership and Leadership Styles 151

8.3 Leadership in R&D Organizations 154

8.4 R&D Leadership: A Process of Mutual Influence 157

8.5 A Leadership-Style Case 158

8.6 Leadership in a Creative Research Environment 160

8.7 Summary 161

8.8 Questions for Class Discussion 163

9 Managing Conflict in R&D Organizations 164

9.1 Conflict Within Individuals 164

9.2 Conflict Between Individuals 169

9.3 Conflict Between Groups 171

9.4 Intercultural Conflict 177

9.5 Personal Styles of Conflict Resolution 179

9.6 Unique Issues of Conflict in R&D Organizations 181

9.7 Ethics 183

9.8 Summary 183

9.9 Questions for Class Discussion 184

10 Performance Appraisal—Employee Contribution—In R&D Organizations 185

10.1 Some Negative Connotations of Performance Appraisal 185

10.2 Difficulties with Employee Appraisal 187

10.3 Performance Appraisal and the Management System 189

10.4 Performance Appraisal and Organizational Stages 190

10.5 Performance Appraisal and Organization Productivity 190

10.6 Goals of Engineers Versus Scientists 191

10.7 Performance Appraisal and Monetary Rewards 192

10.8 Performance Appraisal in Practice 194

10.9 A University Department Case 195

10.10 Implementation Strategy with Emphasis on Employee Contribution 196

10.11 Summary 203

10.12 Questions for Class Discussion 203

10.13 Appendix: Argonne National Laboratory Performance Review Information 204

11 Technology Transfer 213

11.1 Technology Transfer Hypotheses 214

11.2 Stages of Technology Transfer 214

11.3 Approaches and Factors Affecting Technology Transfer 216

11.4 Role of the User 218

11.5 Characteristics of Innovation and its Diffusion 220

11.6 Role of People 222

11.7 Boundary Spanning 223

11.8 Organizational Issues in Technology Transfer 226

11.9 The Agricultural Extension Model 227

11.10 NASA Technology Transfer Programs 228

11.11 IBM Technology Transfer Cases 229

11.12 Technology Transfer Strategy 231

11.13 Summary 236

11.14 Questions for Class Discussion 237

12 Models for Implementing Incremental and Radical Innovation 238

12.1 Defining Innovation 239

12.2 Strategic Choices in Technological Innovation 242

12.3 Making Technological Innovation Operational 244

12.4 The Market Marketers and Market Research in Technological Innovation 249

12.5 Leading Innovative Organizations 253

12.6 Summary 254

12.7 Questions for Class Discussion 256

13 Organizational Change in R&D Settings 257

13.1 Why Organizational Change? 258

13.2 Steps in Organizational Change 259

13.3 Problems and Action Steps 259

13.4 Individual Change 262

13.5 Group Change: Team Building 264

13.6 Organizational Change 267

13.7 Evaluating Organizational Change 268

13.8 Case Study in Organizational Change 270

13.9 Summary 273

13.10 Questions for Class Discussion 273

14 Managing the Network of Technological Innovation 274

14.1 Overall Trends Within and Between Sectors 274

14.2 Trends in Research Development and Innovation in the Commercial Realm 276

14.3 Trends in Research Development and Innovation in the Federal Government 279

14.4 Trends in Research Development and Innovation in Universities 286

14.5 Open Innovation Regional Economic Development and the Global Innovation Network 290

14.6 Summary 294

14.7 Questions For Class Discussion 295

15 Universities and Basic Research 296

15.1 Basis for University Research Activities 297

15.2 Federal Support of University Research: An Entitlement or a Means to Achieve National Goals? 298

15.3 Basic Research: Who Needs It? 301

15.4 University–Industry Linkage 309

15.5 Rethinking Investment in Basic Research 311

15.6 Summary and Concluding Comments 312

15.7 Questions for Class Discussion 313

16 R&D Organizations and Strategy 315

16.1 What is Strategy? 316

16.2 Strategy Levels and Perspectives 319

16.3 Strategy Formulation and Implementation 319

16.4 Strategy Evaluation 321

16.5 Strategy and Innovation 322

16.6 Technology and Strategy 324

16.7 Applying a Strategy Process 325

16.8 Summary 330

16.9 Questions for Class Discussion 330

17 Research Development and Science Policy 331

17.1 Relationship Between Science and Technology 334

17.2 Technical Innovation and Economic Development 336

17.3 Analysis of Investment in Basic Research 339

17.4 R&D Expenditure 340

17.5 R&D Productivity 347

17.6 Global Perspectives on Innovation 352

17.7 R&D Expenditure and Science Policy 357

17.8 Summary 362

17.9 Questions for Class Discussion 363

References 364

Author Index 383

Subject Index 387