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Marine Chemical Monitoring: Policies, Techniques and Metrological Principles

Marine Chemical Monitoring: Policies, Techniques and Metrological Principles

Philippe Quevauviller

ISBN: 978-1-119-00699-2

Jan 2016, Wiley-ISTE

310 pages

$100.99

Description

Combining laboratory experience with research and policy developments, this book provides an insight into the historical background of marine monitoring, its regulatory frameworks and science–policy interactions.

With experience in the European Commission, the author draws from practical experience in research and policy implementation to present a concise review of marine monitoring on an international level.

The author deals with monitoring and related QA/QC principles, focusing on monitoring types, while describing general features of analytical methods used in marine monitoring.

The book concludes with a discussion about how to achieve metrology principles (measurement traceability) in marine monitoring.

Preface ix

Glossary  xv

Abbreviations  xxi

Chapter 1. Marine Monitoring: Historical Background, Regulatory Framework and Science–Policy Interactions  1

1.1. Introduction  1

1.2. International institutions 3

1.2.1. International Council for the Exploration of the Sea 5

1.2.2. United Nations Environment Programme  6

1.2.3. Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission of UNESCO  10

1.2.4. European Union 11

1.3. International conventions/programs  12

1.3.1. UN Convention on the Law of the Sea  12

1.3.2. London Dumping Convention 13

1.3.3. OSPAR Conventions  13

1.3.4. Helsinki Convention 16

1.3.5. MARPOL 17

1.3.6. Mediterranean Sea: Barcelona Convention 18

1.3.7. Bonn Agreement 19

1.3.8. Arctic Ocean: Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Programme  19

1.3.9. North East Pacific Ocean 20

1.3.10. North West Atlantic Ocean 21

1.3.11. North Sea conferences 22

1.3.12. Other conventions 22

1.4. The EU marine strategy 22

1.4.1. The notion of “good environmental status” 24

1.4.2. Marine strategies of the Member States 25

1.4.3. Monitoring in the MSFD policy context  26

1.5. Science–policy interactions  29

1.5.1. Scientific foundation of environmental policies: where do we stand? 29

1.5.2. EU scientific framework in support of water and marine policies 31

1.5.3. Identification of research needs in the water policy sectors  33

1.5.4. Interactions with the scientific community 34

1.5.5. Science-based development of an integrated environmental policy 37

1.6. Conclusions  39

Chapter 2. Monitoring and Quality Assurance 41

2.1. Monitoring of what? 41

2.1.1. Selection of compartments  41

2.1.2. Selection of compounds  42

2.2. Quality of data  44

2.2.1. Introduction 44

2.2.2. Interlaboratory comparisons  45

2.2.3. Guidelines  47

2.2.4. (Certified) reference materials  48

2.2.5. Laboratory performance studies 49

2.2.6. Example: monitoring of trace metals in seawater 51

2.3. Certified reference materials  53

2.3.1. Introduction 53

2.3.2. Production and use of reference materials 53

2.3.3. CRMs for trace elements in nutrients  62

2.3.4. CRMs for organic non-halogenated compounds  66

2.3.5. CRMs for organic halogenated compounds  68

2.3.6. Future needs of CRMs 71

Chapter 3. Types of Monitoring  73

3.1. Classical chemical marine monitoring  73

3.1.1. Introduction  73

3.1.2. The basis and purpose of marine monitoring 74

3.1.3. Some considerations around classical monitoring 77

3.1.4. Designing a sampling program  80

3.1.5. Sample collection and immediate handling 82

3.1.6. Sample storage (short- and long-term)  83

3.1.7. Laboratory analyses 86

3.1.8. The final assessment 93

3.1.9. Conclusions  94

3.2. In situ methods  94

3.2.1. Introduction  94

3.2.2. In situ automatic analyzers 96

3.2.3. Passive sampling technologies 99

3.2.4. Spectroscopic methods 106

3.2.5. Electrochemical techniques  110

3.2.6. Sensors 113

3.2.7. Biological early warning systems 116

3.2.8. Future 119

3.3. Biomonitoring 121

3.3.1. Introduction  121

3.3.2. Analytical trends in chemical monitoring of marine biota  123

3.3.3. Main features of biota monitoring programs  128

3.3.4. Analytical methods 131

3.3.5. Integration of chemical and biological effect monitoring  136

3.4. Use of sediment in coastal monitoring  139

3.4.1. Introduction  139

3.4.2. Sediment monitoring in the WFD context  142

3.4.3. Chemical monitoring in estuaries for coastal management  142

Chapter 4. Analytical Methods 147

4.1. Trace elements  147

4.1.1. Introduction  147

4.1.2. Digestion methods  148

4.1.3. Preconcentration methods for seawater analysis  150

4.1.4. Atomic absorption and emission techniques  151

4.1.5. (Instrumental) neutron activation analysis  157

4.1.6. X-ray techniques  158

4.1.7. Electrochemical techniques  159

4.1.8. Conclusions 160

4.2. Chemical species 161

4.2.1. Introduction 161

4.2.2. Labile/complexed fractionation of metal species 163

4.2.3. Inorganic chromium species 168

4.2.4. Inorganic and organic arsenic species  171

4.2.5. Inorganic and methylated mercury species 176

4.2.6. Butyltin and other organotin species 181

4.3. Organic micropollutants  185

4.3.1. Introduction 185

4.3.2. Polychlorinated biphenyls 186

4.3.3. Polybrominated diphenyls ethers 189

4.3.4. Emerging contaminants  191

4.3.5. Organohalogens in water 193

4.3.6. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons  196

4.4. Nutrients  197

4.4.1. Introduction 197

4.4.2. Nutrient monitoring 198

4.4.3. Analytical methods 199

Chapter 5. Conclusions: Achieving Traceability in Marine Monitoring Measurements?  205

5.1. Metrology in marine chemistry: traceability principles of chemical measurements 205

5.1.1. Meaning of traceability for chemical measurements  206

5.1.2. Stated references  209

5.1.3. Case studies illustrating metrology in marine chemistry  220

5.1.4. Conclusions 229

5.2. Policy perspectives 231

Bibliography 235

Index  283