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Marine Microbiology: Bioactive Compounds and Biotechnological Applications

Marine Microbiology: Bioactive Compounds and Biotechnological Applications

Se-Kwon Kim (Editor)

ISBN: 978-3-527-66527-3

Jun 2013

580 pages

$188.99

Description

Deliberately breaking with the classical biology-centered description of marine organisms and their products, this reference emphasizes microbial technology over basic biology, setting it apart from its predecessors. As such, it systematically covers the technology behind high-value compounds for use as pharmaceuticals, nutraceuticals or cosmetics, from prospecting to production issues.

Following a definition of the field, the book goes on to address all industrially important aspects of marine microbial biotechnology. The first main part contains a description of the major production organisms, from archaebacteria to cyanobacteria to algae and symbionts, including their genetic engineering. The remaining four parts look at commercially important compounds produced by these microorganisms together with their applications. Throughout, the emphasis is on technological considerations, and the future potential of these organisms or compound classes is discussed. A valuable and forward-looking resource for innovative biotechnologists in industry as well as in academia.

PREFACE

INTRODUCTION TO MARINE ACTINOBACTERIA
Introduction
Actinobacteria
Origin and Distribution of Marine Actinobacteria
Isolation and Identification of Marine Actinobacteria
Indigenous Marine Actinobacteria
Role of Actinobacteria in the Marine Environment
Importance of Marine Actinobacteria
Symbioses
Bioinformatics
Conclusions

TREASURE HUNTING FOR USEFUL MICROORGANISMS IN THE MARINE ENVIRONMENT
Introduction
Microorganisms Living in the Marine Environment
Microorganisms Living in Deep Sea Water

STRATEGY OF MARINE VIRUSES IN GLOBAL ECOSYSTEM
Introduction
Reproductive Strategies of Viruses
Abundance of Marine Viruses
Viral Activities in Ecosystems
Recent Advancement of Viruses versus Diseases
The Effect of Ocean Acidification on Marine Viruses
Further Aspects

TAXONOMIC STUDY OF ANTIBIOTIC-PRODUCING MARINE ACTINOBACTERIA
Introduction
Materials and Methods
Result
Discussion
Conclusion

MARINE CYANOBACTERIA: A PROLIFIC SOURCE OF BIOACTIVE NATURAL PRODUCTS AS DRUG LEADS
Introduction
Bioactive Secondary Metabolites from Marine Cyanobacteria
Conclusions

MARINE BACTERIA ARE AN ATTRACTIVE SOURCE TO OVERCOME THE PROBLEMS OF ANTIBIOTIC-RESISTANT STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS
Introduction
Strategies for Overcoming Antibiotic Resistance of Bacteria
Marine Bacteria Are Attractive Natural Sources for Overcoming Antibiotic Resistance of MRSA

MARINE BACTERIA AS PROBIOTICS AND THEIR APPLICATIONS IN AQUACULTURE
Introduction
Definition of Probiotics in Aquaculture
Selecting and Developing Probiotics in Aquaculture
Effects of Probiotics on Aquatic Organisms
Probiotics in the Larviculture 1
Problems Associated with Probiotics Development
Further Work and Conclusions

SMALL-MOLECULE ANTIBIOTICS FROM MARINE BACTERIA AND STRATEGIES TO PREVENT REDISCOVERY OF KNOWN COMPOUNDS
Antibiotic Activity of Marine Bacteria
Structurally Elucidated Marine Bacterial Antibiotics
Cosmopolitan Antibiotics: the Rediscovery Problem
Future Strategies for the Discovery of Marine Bacterial Antibiotics
Conclusions and Perspectives

MARINE BACTERIOPHAGES FOR THE BIOCONTROL OF FISH AND SHELLFISH DISEASES
Introduction
Mode of Action of Phages
Diversity of Marine Phages
Application of Marine Phages to Control Fish and Shellfish Diseases
Potentials and Limitations of Phage Therapy in Marine Fish and Shellfish

MARINE ACTINOMYCETES AS SOURCE OF PHARMACEUTICALLY IMPORTANT COMPOUNDS
Introduction
Marine Actinomycetes as Source of Therapeutics
Marine Actinomycete Compounds as Antibacterials
Marine Actinomycete Compounds as Antitumors/Antiproliferative
Marine Actinomycete Enzymes as Antiproliferatives
Marine Actinomycete Compounds as Antimalarials
Marine Actinomycete Compounds as Antifungals
Bioactive Compounds from Sponge-Associated Actinomycetes
Conclusion

ANTIMICROBIAL AGENTS FROM MARINE CYANOBACTERIA AND ACTINOMYCETES
Introduction
Antimicrobials from Marine Actinomycetes
Antimicrobials from Marine Cyanobacteria
Current Research Status: Challenges and Future Prospects
Conclusions

BIOACTIVE COMPOUNDS FROM MARINE ACTINOMYCETES
Introduction
Actinomycetes
Diversity and Distribution of Marine Actinobacteria
Bioactive Compounds
Conclusions

FUNGAL BIOACTIVE GENE CLUSTERS: A MOLECULAR INSIGHT
Introduction to Fungal Secondary Metabolites
Polyketide Synthase
Nonribosomal Peptide Synthetase
PKS and NRPS Products
Conclusions

ANTICANCER POTENTIALS OF MARINE-DERIVED FUNGAL METABOLITES
Introduction
Marine Fungi
Cancer: Initiation, Progression, and Therapeutics
Anticancer Metabolites of Marine Fungal Origin
Future Prospects and Concluding Remarks

ANTIFUNGAL AND ANTIMYCOTOXIN ACTIVITIES OF MARINE ACTINOMYCETES AND THEIR COMPOUNDS
Introduction
Diversity of Actinomycetes in the Sea
Diversity of Natural Compounds from Marine Actinomycetes
Biological Activities
Conclusions

ANTITUBERCULOSIS MATERIALS FROM MARINE MICROBES
Introduction
Marine Microbe-Derived Antituberculosis Agents
Conclusions

HARNESSING THE CHEMICAL AND GENETIC DIVERSITIES OF MARINE MICROORGANISMS FOR MEDICAL APPLICATIONS
Introduction
Novel MNPs
Gene-Based Studies of MNPs
MNPs Discovery Using Genome Mining
Conclusion and Prospects

MARINE SYMBIOTIC MICROORGANISMS: A NEW DIMENSION IN NATURAL PRODUCT RESEARCH
Introduction
Marine Microorganisms and Their Symbiotic Relationships
Biologically Active Metabolites of Marine Symbiotic Microbes
Concluding Remarks

APPLICATION OF PROBIOTICS FROM MARINE MICROBES FOR SUSTAINABLE MARINE AQUACULTURE DEVELOPMENT
Introduction
The Application of Probiotics for Marine Fishes
The Application of Probiotics for Marine Crustaceans
The Application of Probiotics for Marine Mollusks

ANTIMICROBIAL PROPERTIES OF EICOSAPENTAENOIC ACID (C20 : 5N_3)
Introduction
Spectrum of Antimicrobial Activity and Potency
Structure Relationship with Activity
Mechanism of Antimicrobial Action
Safety, Delivery, and Biotechnological Application
Concluding Remarks

BIOPROSPECTING OF MARINE MICROBIAL SYMBIONTS: EXPLOITATION OF UNDEREXPLORED MARINE MICROORGANISMS
Introduction
Marine Microbial Symbionts
Bioethical and Supply Issues in Utilizing Marine Invertebrates
Marine Fungal Symbionts of Corals as Sustainable Sources of Marine Natural Products
Marine Actinomycete Symbionts as Prolific Marine Natural Products
New Avenue of Research: Marine Natural Products from Fungal Symbionts of Corals
Concluding Remarks

MARINE MICROORGANISMS AND THEIR VERSATILE APPLICATIONS IN BIOACTIVE COMPOUNDS
Introduction
Separation and Isolation Techniques of Bioactive Compounds from Marine Organisms
Different Bioactive Compounds from Marine Organisms
Polysaccharides
Pigments
Conclusions

METABOLITES OF MARINE MICROORGANISMS AND THEIR PHARMACOLOGICAL ACTIVITIES
Introduction
Marine Fungi
Marine Actinomycetes
Marine Cyanobacteria
Conclusions

SPONGES: A RESERVOIR FOR MICROORGANISM-DERIVED BIOACTIVE METABOLITES
Introduction
Collection of Sponges and Associated Microbes
Bacteria
Unidentified Bacteria
Fungi
Unidentified Fungal Strains from Sponges
Compounds in Clinical Trial and Use
Conclusions

BIOACTIVE MARINE MICROORGANISMS FOR BIOCATALYTIC REACTIONS IN ORGANIC COMPOUNDS
Introduction
Marine Enzymes
Biotransformation of Natural Products by Marine Biocatalysts
Biodegradation of Organic Compounds by Marine Biocatalysts
Reduction of Carbonyl Groups (Ketones and Keto Esters) by Marine Biocatalysts
Hydrolysis of Epoxides by Marine Biocatalysts
Collection and Isolation of Bioactive Marine Microorganisms
Conclusions and Perspectives

MARINE MICROBIAL ENZYMES: BIOTECHNOLOGICAL AND BIOMEDICAL ASPECTS
Introduction
Extremozymes: Most Potential Marine Enzymes
Biotechnological Aspects
Biomedical Aspects
Concluding Remarks and Perspectives

BIOMEDICAL APPLICATIONS OF MYCOSPORINE-LIKE AMINO ACIDS
Introduction
Mycosporine-Like Amino Acids (MAAs)
Distribution of MAAs
Genetic Control of MAAs Synthesis
MAAs Induction
Biomedical Potentials of MAAs
MAAs as Photoprotectants
MAAs as an Antioxidant
MAAs as Blocker of Dimer Formation
MAAs as an Osmoregulator
Conclusions and Future Prospects

INDEX