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Marine Particles: Analysis and Characterization

Marine Particles: Analysis and Characterization

David C. Hurd (Editor), Derek W. Spencer (Editor)

ISBN: 978-1-118-66377-6 March 2013 American Geophysical Union 472 Pages

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Published by the American Geophysical Union as part of the Geophysical Monograph Series, Volume 63.

In the past twenty or so years, there has been an increasing amount of interest in suspended particulates in seawater. This interest has concentrated on defining the distribution and variance of particle mass, composition, and flux. It is now well recognized that biogenic and other particle fluxes in the ocean define the principle mechanisms of non-conservative behavior that influence all reactive material. There is, however, concern that the analytical and sampling variability associated with our methods must be sufficiently within our control in order to discern important temporal and spatial variability of particles and fluxes. A review of papers in the recent literature which deal with analyzing the chemical and physical properties of particles collected by traps, pumps and other samplers, reveals that there is a considerable diversity of approaches and techniques being used by the community of active researchers in this field.

Introduction and Rationale for the Workshop,
D.C. Hurd and D.W. Spencer 1

Workshop Participants 3

Chapter 1. Workshop Report: Particle Sampling and Preservation 5

Introduction,
RA. Feely, J .H. Trefry and B. Monger 5

The Workshop Report, RA. Feely and Members of the Working Group 10

Chapter 2. Workshop Report: Sample Manipulation and Speciation,
W.M. Landing and Members of the Working Group 23

Chapter 3. Workshop Report: Major Bioelements,
D. M. Karl and Members of the Working Group 33

In situ collection and laboratory analysis of marine snow and large fecal pellets,
A.L. Alldredge 43

Sampling and analysis of suspended particles in the N. Atlantic,
B. V. Bodungen, M. Wunsch and H. Ffirderer  47

Determination of C, N, S and inorganic S species in marine particles,
GA. Cutter and J. Radford-Knoery 57

Determination of aquatic humic acid C and N by high temperature combustion,
L.E. Fox 65

Particulate C, N, P and Si analysis at the Bedford Inst. of Oceanography,
W.G. Harrison and E.J.H. Head 69

Particulate C, N, P and total mass analysis in US-JGOFS HOT,
D.M. Karl, J.E. Dore, D.V. Hebel and C. Winn 71

Determination of mass flux, inorganic and organic C and N flux in rapidly sinking particles,
G. Knauer 79

Determination of S in marine particles,
PA. Matrai 83

Total mass and particulate C,
N and P, J.H. Sharp 87

Review of particulate C, Nand P analytical services at UH/HIMB,
T.W. Walsh, S.V. Smith and S. Vink 91

Sampling and analysis of marine particles with PEBENOCO,
P. Wassmann 97

Chapter 4. Workshop Report: Organic Inventories 101

Introduction,
C. Lee, S. Henrichs and R. Letelier 101

The Workshop Report,
C. Lee and Members of the Working Group 103

Analysis of algal chlorophylls and carotenoids,
R.R. Bidigare 119

Analysis of carotenoids and chlorophylls in SPM, trap samples and sediments,
D.J. Repeta 125

Lignin, cutin, amino acid and carbohydrate analyses of marine POM,
J.I. Hedges 129

Methods for dissolved and particulate amino acids and carbohydrates in seawater,
S.M. Henrichs 139

Analysis of sugars, chiral amino acids and SFE-extractable lipids from POM,
K. Mopper and K.G. Furton 151

Electrophoretic separation of particulate proteins in seawater,
E. Tanoue 163

Sampling and analysis of lipids in marine POM,
S.G. Wakeham and J.K. Volkman 171

Ultrafiltration for the concentration of bacteria, viruses and DOC,
R.Benner 181

Methods for isolating colloidal organic matter from seawater,
B.J. Brownawell 187

In situ exploration of macromolecules and particulate materials in seawater,
D. Carlson 195

Isotopic analysis of individual compounds,
B.N. Popp 199

Recent developments in chromatographic, pyrolitic and spectrometric techniques,
J.W. de Leeuw 207

Chapter 5. Workshop Report: Inorganic and Radioactive Properties,
R. L. Anderson and Members of the Working Group 213

Particulate matter digestion and radioactive blanks,
M. Fleisher and R.L. Anderson 221

Notes on some techniques of marine particle analysis at WHOI,
A.P. Fleer and M.P. Bacon 223

Updated determination of particulate and dissolved 234TH,
A.P. Fleer 227

Getting good weight,
J.K.B. Bishop 229

Analysis of particulate matter from sediment traps and cores,
R. Collier et al. 235

Characterization of marine particulate material by ICPMS,
K. Kenison Falkner 243

Sampling of POM and analysis by x-ray fluorescence,
RA. Feely, G.J. Massoth and G.T. Lebon 251

Surface charge and size spectra of marine particles,
KA. Hunter 259

Analysis of marine particulate and colloidal material for transition metals,
W.M. Landing and B.L. Lewis 263

Elemental sulfur analysis,
G.W. Luther 273

The application of cross flow filtration to the collection of colloids from seawater,
S.B. Moran 275

Sampling and analysis of particles from buoyant hydrothermal plumes,
M.J. Mottl 281

Collection of oceanic SPM for trace metal analysis using a new in situ pump,
R.M. Sherrell 285

Filtration techniques for river and coastal waters with emphasis on trace metals in anoxic waters,
E. Sholkovitz 295

Analysis and characterization of marine particles in estuarine waters,
J. Skei 303

Collection and analysis of marine particles for trace elements,
J.H. Trefry and R.P. Trocine 311

Suspended particulate sampling and analysis for trace elements,
H.L. Windom and R.G. Smith, Jr  317

Collection and analysis of marine particles,
PA. Yeats 321

Chapter 6. Workshop Report: Mineralogy and Surface Properties,
P. E. Biscaye and Members of the Working Group 325

Mineralogical analysis of marine particles by x-ray powder diffraction,
S. van der Gaast 343

Measuring biogenic silica in marine sediments and suspended matter,
D. J. DeMaster 363

Labile phases and the ocean's strontium cycle,
R. E. Bernstein and P. R. Betzer 369

Mineralogy and chemistry of particles by synchrotron X-ray, Me,ssbauer and plasma MS,
A. C. Campbell 375

Sampling, preparation and analysis of marine particulate matter,
G. Fischer and G. Wefer 391

The SPAS: Selected Particle Analysis System,
J. Jedwab 399

Sampling and methods of characterization of surface reactivity,
E. H. De Carlo and D. Koeppenkastrop 419

Individual particle analyses,
J. P. Cowen 429

Surface chemistry, colloids and trace element scavenging,
B. D. Honeyman 437

Appendix I. Subject Index 453

Appendix II. Author Index 458

Appendix III. Glossary of Abbreviations 469

Appendix IV. List of Trade Names and Manufacturers 472