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Marketing Research, 11th Edition

Marketing Research, 11th Edition

Carl McDaniel Jr., Roger Gates

ISBN: 978-1-119-39201-9

Jan 2018

584 pages

In Stock

$120.95

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In Marketing Research, 11th Edition, authors Carl McDaniel & Roger Gates share their industry experience to teach students how to make critical business decisions through the study of market research. Designed for marketing research courses, the authors' practical, applications-based approach features Real Data, Real People, and Real Research, to prepare students to conduct and use market research for future careers in business. Marketing Research, 11th Edition features new trends, features and cases throughought, with updated chapters featuring new examples of companies and research firms, from Ilycaffe, the famous Italian coffee brand, Twitter, ESPN, Ford and General Motors. Co-author Roger Gates, President of DSS Research, infuses the text with a practitioner perspective, helping students learn how to use marketing research through a practical presentation of theory and practice.

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Preface vii

1 The Role of Marketing Research in Management Decision Making 1

Nature of Marketing 1

The Marketing Concept 2

Opportunistic Nature of Marketing Research 2

External Marketing Environment 2

Marketing Research and Decision Making 3

Marketing Research Defined 3

Importance of Marketing Research to Management 3

Understanding the Ever-Changing Marketplace 4

Social Media and User-Generated Content 4

Proactive Role of Marketing Research 5

Applied Research versus Basic Research 6

Decision to Conduct Marketing Research 6

Development of Marketing Research 8

Inception: Pre-1900 8

Early Growth: 1900–1920 9

Adolescent Years: 1920–1950 9

Mature Years: 1950–2000 10

The Connected World: 2000–2010 10

Big Data and Data Analytics: 2010–Present 12

Summary 14

Key Terms 14

Questions for Review & Critical Thinking 14

Real-Life Research 1.1: Acxiom—The Data Giant 15

Real-Life Research 1.2: Can Anyone Be a Market Researcher? 15

2 The Marketing Intelligence Universe and Research Ethics 17

Rapidly Changing Structure of the Marketing Research Industry 17

Organizations Involved in Marketing Intelligence 18

Consumer and Industrial Goods and Services Producers 18

Governments and Universities 20

Media Companies 20

Custom Research Firms 20

Syndicated Service Firms 21

Digital Companies 22

Competitive Intelligence 22

Limited-Function Research Firms 22

Online and Mobile Tracking Firms 22

Big Data Analytic Firms 23

Specialized Service Suppliers 23

Consumer and Industrial Corporate Marketing Research Departments 24

Research Suppliers 25

Consumer Watch 25

Consumer Buy 27

Using Marketing Research—A Corporate Perspective 27

External Clients 28

Internal Clients 28

Marketing Research Ethics 30

Ethical Theories 30

Research Supplier Ethics 31

Client Ethics 34

Field Service Ethics 36

Respondents’ Rights 37

Ethics and Professionalism 38

Summary 41

Key Terms 41

Questions for Review & Critical Thinking 41

Working the Net 42

Real-Life Research 2.1: Hey, No One Is Perfect 42

Real-Life Research 2.2: Coke Juices Up a Market Test 43

3 Problem Definition, Exploratory Research, and the Research Process 44

Critical Importance of Correctly Defining the Problem 44

Recognize the Problem or Opportunity 45

Find Out Why the Information Is Being Sought 46

Understand the Decision-Making Environment with Exploratory Research 46

Use the Symptoms to Clarify the Problem 49

Translate the Management Problem into a Marketing Research Problem 49

Determine Whether the Information Already Exists 50

Determine Whether the Question Can Be Answered 50

State the Research Objectives 51

Research Objectives As Hypotheses 51

Marketing Research Process 51

Creating the Research Design 51

Choosing a Basic Method of Research 54

Selecting the Sampling Procedure 55

Collecting the Data 55

Analyzing the Data 55

Writing and Presenting the Report 55

Following Up 56

Managing the Research Process 56

The Research Request 56

Request for Proposal 57

The Marketing Research Proposal 58

What to Look for in a Marketing Research Supplier 59

What Motivates Decision Makers to Use Research Information? 60

Summary 61

Key Terms 62

Questions for Review & Critical Thinking 62

Working the Net 63

Real-Life Research 3.1: Let’s Go Out to Eat! 63

4 Secondary Data, Big Data, and Data Analytics 70

Nature of Secondary Data 70

Advantages of Secondary Data 71

Limitations of Secondary Data 72

Internal Databases 74

Creating an Internal Database 74

Data Mining 74

Behavioral Targeting 75

Big Data Analytics 76

Defining Relationships 76

The Big Data Breakthrough 77

Making Big Data Actionable 79

Data Visualization 79

Battle over Privacy 80

Decision Support Systems 83

Summary 84

Key Terms 84

Questions for Review and Critical Thinking 85

Working the Net 85

Real-Life Research 4.1: The Interesting and Curious World of Nate Silver 85

Real-Life Research 4.2: United Upgrades Airline Safety 86

5 Qualitative Research 88

Nature of Qualitative Research 88

Qualitative Research versus Quantitative Research 89

Popularity of Qualitative Research 89

Limitations of Qualitative Research 90

Focus Groups 91

Popularity of Focus Groups 91

Conducting Focus Groups 92

Focus Group Trends 98

Benefits and Drawbacks of Focus Groups 100

Other Qualitative Methodologies 101

Individual Depth Interviews 101

Projective Tests 105

Future of Qualitative Research 110

Summary 110

Key Terms 111

Questions for Review & Critical Thinking 111

Working the Net 112

Real-Life Research 5.1: A Sound Approach for the Sound 112

6 Traditional Survey Research 115

Popularity of Survey Research 115

Types of Errors in Survey Research 116

Sampling Error 116

Systematic Error 117

Types of Surveys 122

Door-to-Door Interviews 122

Executive Interviews 123

Mall-Intercept Interviews 124

Telephone Interviews 124

Self-Administered Questionnaires 127

Mail Surveys 127

Determination of the Survey Method 129

Sampling Precision 129

Budget 130

Requirements for Respondent Reactions 131

Quality of Data 131

Length of the Questionnaire 132

Incidence Rate 132

Structure of the Questionnaire 133

Time Available to Complete the Survey 133

Summary 133

Key Terms 134

Questions for Review & Critical Thinking 134

Real-Life Research 6.1: Retail Categories Are Starting to Blur 135

7 Online Marketing Research: The Growth of Mobile and Social Media Research 136

The Online World 137

Using the Internet for Secondary Data 137

Online Qualitative Research 137

Online Bulletin Boards 137

Webcam Focus Groups 138

Using the Web to Find Focus Group Participants 140

Online Individual Depth Interviews (IDIs) 140

Online Survey Research 141

Advantages of Online Surveys 141

Disadvantages of Online Surveys 142

Tools for Conducting Online Surveys 143

Commercial Online Panels 145

Panel Recruitment 145

Open Recruitment 145

Closed Recruitment 146

Respondent Participation 147

Panel Management 147

Mobile Internet Research—The Future Is Now 148

Advantages of Mobile 148

A Few Bumps at the Beginning 149

Designing a Mobile Survey 149

Social Media Marketing Research 150

Conducting Surveys 150

Summary 151

Key Terms 152

Questions for Review & Critical Thinking 152

Working the Net 152

Real-Life Research 7.1: Procter & Gamble Uses Its Online Community to Help Develop Scents for a New Product Line 152

8 Primary Data Collection: Observation 154

Nature of Observation Research 154

Conditions for Using Observation 155

Approaches to Observation Research 155

Advantages of Observation Research 157

Disadvantages of Observation Research 158

Human Observation 158

Ethnographic Research 158

Mobile Ethnography 162

Mystery Shoppers 162

One-Way Mirror Observations 163

Machine Observation 164

Neuromarketing 164

Facial Action Coding Services (FACS) 168

Gender and Age Recognition Systems 169

In-Store Tracking 169

Television Audience Measurement and Tracking 170

Symphony IRI Consumer Network 170

Tracking 171

Magazines Now Track Online Readers 172

Social Media Tracking 172

Virtual Reality Research 175

Summary 176

Key Terms 177

Questions for Review & Critical Thinking 177

Working the Net 178

Real-Life Research 8.1: Bausch & Lomb Fine-Tune the Details 178

9 Primary Data Collection: Experimentation and Test Markets 180

What Is an Experiment? 181

Demonstrating Causation 181

Concomitant Variation 182

Appropriate Time Order of Occurrence 182

Elimination of Other Possible Causal Factors 182

Experimental Setting 183

Laboratory Experiments 183

Field Experiments 183

Experimental Validity 184

Experimental Notation 185

Extraneous Variables 185

Examples of Extraneous Variables 185

Controlling Extraneous Variables 187

Experimental Design, Treatment, and Effects 188

Limitations of Experimental Research 189

High Cost 189

Security Issues 189

Implementation Problems 190

Selected Experimental Designs 190

Preexperimental Designs 190

True Experimental Designs 192

Quasi-Experiments 193

Test Markets 195

Types of Test Markets 197

Costs of Test Marketing 199

Decision to Conduct Test Marketing 199

Steps in a Test Market Study 200

Other Types of Product Tests 204

Summary 205

Key Terms 205

Questions for Review & Critical Thinking 206

Working the Net 207

Real-Life Research 9.1: Coyote Beer 207

Real-Life Research 9.2: Alcon 208

10 The Concept of Measurement 209

Measurement Process 209

Step One: Identify the Concept of Interest 210

Step Two: Develop a Construct 211

Step Three: Define the Concept Constitutively 211

Step Four: Define the Concept Operationally 211

Step Five: Develop a Measurement Scale 213

Nominal Level of Measurement 214

Ordinal Level of Measurement 214

Interval Level of Measurement 215

Ratio Level of Measurement 215

Step Six: Evaluate the Reliability and Validity of the Measurement 216

Reliability 219

Validity 221

Reliability and Validity—A Concluding Comment 225

Summary 226

Key Terms 226

Questions for Review & Critical Thinking 226

Working the Net 227

Real-Life Research 10.1: Beer Drinkers’ Tastes Change With the Season 227

11 Using Measurement Scales to Build Marketing Effectiveness 228

Attitudes, Behavior, and Marketing Effectiveness 228

Link between Attitudes and Behavior 229

Enhancing Marketing Effectiveness 230

Attitude Measurement Scales 231

Graphic Rating Scales 231

Itemized Rating Scales 232

Traditional One-Stage Format 235

Two-Stage Format 235

Rank-Order Scales 235

Paired Comparisons 236

Constant Sum Scales 237

Semantic Differential Scales 237

Stapel Scales 239

Likert Scales 240

Purchase-Intent Scales 242

Scale Conversions 244

Net Promoter Score (NPS) 245

Considerations in Selecting a Scale 246

The Nature of the Construct Being Measured 246

Type of Scale 246

Balanced versus Nonbalanced Scale 247

Number of Scale Categories 247

Forced versus Nonforced Choice 248

Attitude Measures and Management Decision Making 250

Direct Questioning 250

Indirect Questioning 252

Observation 252

Choosing a Method for Identifying Determinant Attitudes 253

Summary 253

Key Terms 254

Questions for Review & Critical Thinking 254

Working the Net 254

Real-Life Research 11.1: When 8.5 Is Less Than 6.2 255

12 Questionnaire Design 257

Role of a Questionnaire 257

Criteria for a Good Questionnaire 258

Does It Provide the Necessary Decision-Making Information? 258

Does It Consider the Respondent? 259

Does It Meet Editing and Coding Requirements? 259

Does It Solicit Information in an Unbiased Manner: Questionnaire Design Process 260

Step One: Determine Survey Objectives, Resources, and Constraints 261

Step Two: Determine the Data-Collection Method 262

Step Three: Determine the Question Response Format 262

Step Four: Decide on the Question Wording 269

Step Five: Establish Questionnaire Flow and Layout 273

Model Introduction/Opening 275

Model Closing 276

Step Six: Evaluate the Questionnaire 276

Step Seven: Obtain Approval of All Relevant Parties 278

Step Eight: Pretest and Revise 278

Step Nine: Prepare Final Questionnaire Copy 278

Step Ten: Implement the Survey 279

Field Management Companies 279

Impact of the Internet and Mobile Phones on Questionnaire Development 280

Adapting to Mobile Device Questionnaires 283

Costs, Profitability, and Questionnaires 285

Summary 287

Key Terms 287

Questions for Review & Critical Thinking 287

Working the Net 288

Real-Life Research 12.1: Understanding the Internet of Things 288

Real-Life Research 12.2: Sonic Goes Mobile 289

13 Basic Sampling Issues 290

Concept of Sampling 290

Population 291

Sample versus Census 291

Developing a Sampling Plan 292

Step One: Define the Population of Interest 292

Step Two: Choose a Data-Collection Method 293

Step Three: Identify a Sampling Frame 296

Step Four: Select a Sampling Method 296

Step Five: Determine Sample Size 298

Step Six: Develop Operational Procedures for Selecting Sample Elements 298

Step Seven: Execute the Operational Sampling Plan 299

Sampling and Nonsampling Errors 299

Probability Sampling Methods 300

Simple Random Sampling 301

Systematic Sampling 301

Stratified Sampling 302

Cluster Sampling 304

Nonprobability Sampling Methods 305

Convenience Samples 305

Judgment Samples 306

Quota Samples 306

Snowball Samples 306

Internet Sampling 307

Summary 308

Key Terms 308

Questions for Review & Critical Thinking 309

Working the Net 309

Real-Life Research 13.1: The Research Group 310

Real-Life Research 13.2: Florida National Bank 310

14 Sample Size Determination 311

Determining Sample Size for Probability Samples 312

Budget Available 312

Rule of Thumb 314

Number of Subgroups Analyzed 314

Traditional Statistical Methods 315

Normal Distribution 315

General Properties 315

Standard Normal Distribution 316

Population and Sample Distributions 318

Sampling Distribution of the Mean 318

Basic Concepts 319

Making Inferences on the Basis of a Single Sample 322

Point and Interval Estimates 322

Sampling Distribution of the Proportion 323

Determining Sample Size 324

Problems Involving Means 324

Problems Involving Proportions 326

Determining Sample Size for Stratified and Cluster Samples 327

Sample Size for Qualitative Research 327

Population Size and Sample Size 327

Determining How Many Sample Units Are Needed 329

Statistical Power 330

Summary 331

Key Terms 332

Questions for Review & Critical Thinking 332

Working the Net 332

Real-Life Research 14.1: Sky Kitchens 333

Real-Life Research 14.2: Building a Village 333

15 Data Processing and Basic Data Analysis 337

Overview of Data Analysis Procedure 338

Step One: Validation and Editing of Paper Surveys 338

Validation 338

Editing 341

Step Two: Coding 346

Coding Process 346

Automated Coding Systems and Text Processing 348

Step Three: Data Capture 350

Intelligent Capture Systems 350

The Data Capture Process 351

Scanning 351

Step Four: Logical Cleaning of Data 352

Step Five: Tabulation and Statistical Analysis 352

One-Way Frequency Tables 353

Cross Tabulations 355

Death of Crosstabs? 356

Graphic Representations of Data 358

Line Charts 359

Pie Charts 359

Bar Charts 360

Descriptive Statistics 362

Measures of Central Tendency 362

Measures of Dispersion 364

Percentages and Statistical Tests 365

Summary 365

Key Terms 366

Questions for Review & Critical Thinking 366

Working the Net 368

Real-Life Research 15.1: Waffle World 368

Real-Life Research 15.2: Tico Taco 369

16 Statistical Testing of Differences and Relationships 373

Evaluating Differences and Changes 374

Statistical Significance 374

Hypothesis Testing 377

Steps in Hypothesis Testing 377

Types of Errors in Hypothesis Testing 382

Accepting H0 versus Failing to Reject (FTR) H0 384

One-Tailed versus Two-Tailed Test 384

Example of Performing a Statistical Test 384

Commonly Used Statistical Hypothesis Tests 388

Independent versus Related Samples 388

Degrees of Freedom 389

Goodness of Fit 389

Chi-Square Test 389

Hypotheses about One Mean 396

Z Test 396

t Test 397

Hypotheses about Two Means 400

Hypotheses about Proportions 402

Proportion in One Sample 402

Two Proportions in Independent Samples 403

Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) 405

P Values and Significance Testing 407

Summary 408

Key Terms 409

Questions for Review & Critical Thinking 409

Working the Net 411

Real-Life Research 16.1: Analyzing Global Bazaar Segmentation Results 411

Real-Life Research 16.2: Texas New Mexico Power 412

17 Bivariate Correlation and Regression 416

Bivariate Analysis of Association 416

Bivariate Regression 417

Nature of the Relationship 417

Example of Bivariate Regression 419

Correlation for Metric Data: Pearson’s Product–Moment Correlation 431

Summary 437

Key Terms 437

Questions for Review & Critical Thinking 437

Working the Net 439

Real-Life Research 17.1: Road Runner 439

Real-Life Research 17.2: Lambda Social Hotspot 439

18 Multivariate Data Analysis 443

Multivariate Analysis Procedures 443

Multivariate Software 445

Multiple Regression Analysis 446

Applications of Multiple Regression Analysis 447

Multiple Regression Analysis Measures 447

Dummy Variables 448

Potential Use and Interpretation Problems 449

Multiple Discriminant Analysis 450

Applications of Multiple Discriminant Analysis 451

Cluster Analysis 451

Procedures for Clustering 451

Factor Analysis 454

Factor Scores 455

Factor Loadings 456

Naming Factors 457

Number of Factors to Retain 457

Conjoint Analysis 457

Example of Conjoint Analysis 457

Considering Features Conjointly 459

Estimating Utilities 459

Simulating Buyer Choice 461

Limitations of Conjoint Analysis 462

Big Data and Hadoop 462

Predictive Analytics 463

Using Predictive Analytics 465

Privacy Concerns and Ethics 467

Commercial Predictive Modeling Software and Applications 468

Summary 468

Key Terms 469

Questions for Review & Critical Thinking 469

Working the Net 471

Real-Life Research 18.1: Satisfaction Research for Pizza Quik 471

Real-Life Research 18.2: Acme Car Wash Systems 472

19 Communicating the Research Results 477

The Research Report 477

Organizing the Report 479

Interpreting the Findings 480

Format of the Report 482

Formulating Recommendations 483

The Presentation 484

Making a Presentation 487

Presentations by Internet 492

Summary 493

Key Terms 493

Questions for Review & Critical Thinking 494

Working the Net 494

Real-Life Research 19.1: Francie Dog Collars 494

Real-Life Research 19.2: TouchWell Storefront Concept and Naming Research 495

20 Managing Marketing Research 501

Marketing Research Supplier Management 502

What Do Clients Want? 502

Consolidating the Number of Acceptable Suppliers 504

Communication 504

The Key Role of the Project Manager 505

Managing the Research Process 505

Organizing the Supplier Firm 505

Data Quality Management 507

Time Management 508

Cost Management 509

Client Profitability Management 511

Staff Management and Development 512

Managing a Marketing Research Department 514

Allocating the Research Department Budget 514

Prioritizing Projects 515

Retaining Skilled Staff 515

Selecting the Right Marketing Research Suppliers 517

Moving Marketing Research into a Decision-Making Role 519

Measuring Marketing Research’s Return on Investment 524

Summary 525

Key Terms 525

Questions for Review & Critical Thinking 525

Working the Net 526

Real-Life Research 20.1: Greg Harris Research Deals with Growth 526

Real-Life Research 20.2: Johnny Jets Drive-Ins 526

Appendix A 529

[Appendix B and C will be available in online at www.wiley.com/college/mcdaniel]

Appendix B 537

Appendix C 541

Endnotes 565

Glossary 575

QSR Survey 583

Index 587