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Materials Challenges in Alternative and Renewable Energy II



Materials Challenges in Alternative and Renewable Energy II

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The overall efficiency, effectiveness, and practicality of potential future energy sources and systems are directly related to many materials-related factors. This volume features 30 papers presented during the 2012 Materials Challenges in Alternative and Renewable Energy Conference. They cover the latest developments involving materials for alternative and renewable energy sources and systems, including batteries and energy storage, hydrogen, solar, wind, geothermal, biomass, and nuclear, as well as materials availability, the energy grid, and nanocomposites.
Preface ix

Acknowledgements xi


State of Nuclear Energy in the World 3
Thomas L. Sanders

Batteries and Energy Storage

Correlation Between Microstructure and Oxygen Removal in Solid-Oxide-Fuel-Cell Model Electrodes Pt(O2)/YSZ and Od(O2)/YSZ 15
G. Beck

Electrical and Morphological Characterization of Monocultures and Co-Cultures of Shewandella Putrefaciens and Shewanella Oneidensis in a Microbial Fuel Cell 25
K.E. Larson and M.C. Shaw


Refractory Ceramic Lining Selection ad Troubleshooting in Thermal Biomass Operations 39
Dana G. Goski, Timothy M. Green, and Dominic J. Loiacona

Comparison of Two Stage Mesophilic and Thermophilic Anaerobic Digestion of OFMSW 47
Gayathri Ram Mohan, Patrick Dube, Alex MacFarlane, and Pratap Pullammanappalli

Biogasification of Marine Algae Nannochloropsis Oculata 59
Samriddhi Buxy, Robert Diltz, Pratap Pullammanappalli

A Preliminary Study of an Innovative Biomass Waste Aerobic Degradation System for Hot Water Heating 69
Haorong Li, Daihong Yu, and Yanshun Yu

Multi-Energy Optimization Process: Biodiesel Production through Ultrasound and Microwaves
S. Getty, M. Kropf, and B. Tittmann

Effects of Fuel Grade Ethanol on Pump Station and Terminal Facilities 89
Greg Quickel, John Beavers, Feng Gui, and Narasi Sridhar

Distributed Hydrogen Generation and Storage from Biomass 105
Peter J. Schubert, Joseph Paganessi, Alan D. Wilks, and Maureen Murray

Electric Grid

Gallium Nitride for Grid Applications 117
Mike Soboroff


High-Temperature Circuit Boards for Use in Geothermal Well Monitoring Applications 125
Jennifer K. Walsh, Matthew W. Hooker, Kaushik Mallick, and Mark J. Lizotte

Self-Degradable Cementitious Sealing Materials in Enhanced Geothermal System 137
Toshifumi Sugama, Tatiana Pyatina, and Thomas Butcher


Thermodynamics and Kinetics of Complex Borohydride and Amide Hydrogen Storage Materials 157
Andrew Goudy, Adeola Ibikunle, Saidi Sabitu, and Tolulope Durojaiye

Microstructure and Corrosion Behavior of the Cu-Pd-M Ternary Alloys for Hydrogen Separation Membranes 169
O.N. Dogan, M.C. Gao, and R. Hu

Metal-Hydrogen Systems: What changes When Systems go to the Nan-Scale? 181
A. Pundt

Materials Availability for Alternative Energy

Preparation of Organic-Modified Ceria Nanocrystals with Hydrothermal Treatment 195
Katsutoshi Kobayashi, Masaaki Haneda, and Masakuni Ozawa

Integration of MgO Carbonation Process to Capture CO2 from a Coal-Fired Power Plant 205
Sushant Kumar

Investigation on Ammonium Phosphate Mixed SIO2/Polymer Hybrid Composite Membranes 215
Uma Thanganathan

Nanocomposites and Nanomaterials

Nano-Heterogeneous Structuring Effects on Thermal Power Factor and Thermal Conductivity 225
Gustavo Fernandes, Do-Joong Lee, Jin Ho Kim, Seungwoo Jung, Gi-Yong Jung, Fazal Wahab, Youngok Park, Ki-Bum Kim, and Jimmy Xu

Development of Thermoelectric Devices for Structural Composites 235
Oonnittan Jacob Panachaveettil, Xinghua Si, Zabra Zamanipour, Ranji Vaidyanathan, and Daryoosh Vashaee

Effect of Sn Concentration on Physical Properties of ZnO Thin Films Grown by Spray Pyrolysis on SnO2:F/Glass 245
Mejda Ajili, Michel Castagne, and Najoua Kamoun Turki

Effect of Heat Treatment on the Physical Properties of In2S3 Prepared by Chemical Bath Deposition 255
Mouna Kilani, Cathy Gguasch, Michel Castagne, and Najoua Kamoun-Turki

Effect of Indium Concentration on the Physical Properties of In2O3 Nanomaterials Grown by Spray Pyrolysis 261
Nasreddine Beji. Mejda Ajil, Zeineb Sboui, and Najoua Kamoun-Turki

One-Pot Synthesis of Functionalized Few-Walled Carbon Nanotube/MnO2 Composite for High Performance Electrochemical Supercapacitors 271
Yingwen Cheng, Hongbo Zhang, Songtao Lu, Shutong Zhan, Chekrapani Varanasi, and Jei Liu


The Use of Inexpensive, All-Natural Organic Materials in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells 285
J. Whitehead, J. Tannaci and M.C. Shaw

Deep Level Defects in N+-CdS/P-CdTe Solar Cells 297
P. Kharangarth, Z. Cheng, G. Liu, G.E. Georgiou, and K.K. Chin 297

Growth Dynamics in Thin Films of Copper Indium Gallium Diselenide Sputtered from a Quaternary Target 303
J.A. Frantz, R.Y. Bekele, J.D. Myers, V.Q. Nguyen, A Bruce, S.V. Frolov, M. Cyrus, and J.S. Sanghera


Novel Flexible Membrane for Structural Health Monitoring of Wind Turbine Blades-Feasibility Study 315
S. Laflamme, H. Seleem, B. Vasan, R. Geiger, S. Chaudhary, M. Kollosche, K. Rajan, and G. Kofod

Robotic and Multiaxial Testing for the Determination of the Constitutive Characterization of Composites 325
John Michopoulos, Athanasios Iliopoulos, and John Harmanson

Authort Index 339