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Materials Kinetics Fundamentals

Materials Kinetics Fundamentals

Ryan O'Hayre

ISBN: 978-1-118-97293-9

Dec 2014

312 pages

$96.99

Description

Introductory kinetics for the undergrad materials scientist

Materials Kinetics Fundamentals is an accessible and interesting introduction to kinetics processes, with a focus on materials systems. Designed for the undergraduate student, this book avoids intense mathematics to present the theory and application of kinetics in a clear, reader-friendly way. Students are first introduced to the fundamental concepts of kinetics, with illustrated diagrams, examples, text boxes, and homework questions that impart a unified, intuitive understanding. Further chapters cover the application of these concepts in the context of materials science, with real-world examples including silicon processing and integrated circuit fabrication, thin-film deposition, carbon-14 dating, steel degassing, energy conversion, and more. Instructor materials including PowerPoint presentations, a test bank, and more are available through the companion website, providing a complete resource for the undergraduate materials science student.

At its core, kinetics deals with rates, telling us how fast something will take place – for example, how fast water will evaporate, or how fast molten silicon will solidify. This book is designed to provide students with an introduction to kinetics' underlying principles, without rigorous math to distract from understanding.

  • Understand universally important kinetic concepts like diffusion and reaction rate
  • Model common kinetic processes both quantitatively and qualitatively
  • Learn the mechanisms behind important and interesting materials systems
  • Examine the behaviors, properties, and interactions of relevant solid materials

There are a large number of books on chemical kinetics, but there are far fewer that focus on materials kinetics, and virtually none that provide an accessible, introductory-level treatment of the subject. Materials Kinetics Fundamentals fills that need, with clear, detailed explanations of these universal concepts.

Related Resources

Preface v

Acknowledgments vii

Objectives ix

I Kinetic Principles 1

1 Introduction to Materials Kinetics 3

1.1 What is Kinetics?  3

1.2 Kinetics vs. Thermodynamics 5

1.3 Homogeneous vs. Heterogeneous Kinetics 6

1.4 Reaction vs. Diffusion 7

1.5 Classifying Kinetic Processes 9

1.6 A Brief Word About Units 10

1.7 Chapter Summary 10

1.8 Chapter Exercises 12

2 A Short Detour Into Thermodynamics 15

2.1 Dynamic Equilibrium 15

2.2 Enthalpy (H), Entropy (S), and Gibbs Free Energy (G) 16

2.3 Molar Quantities 19

2.4 Standard State 21

2.5 Calculating Thermodynamic Quantities 21

2.6 The Reaction Quotient, Q, and the Equilibrium Constant, K 23

2.7 The Temperature Dependence of K 30

2.8 Thermodynamics of Phase Transformations 32

2.9 The Ideal Gas Law 35

2.10 Calculating Concentrations for Liquids or Solids 37

2.11 Chapter Summary 45

2.12 Chapter Exercises 47

3 Chemical Reaction Kinetics 51

3.1 Homogeneous vs. Heterogeneous Chemical Reactions 53

3.2 Homogeneous Chemical Reactions 54

3.3 The Temperature Dependence of Reaction Kinetics: Activation Theory 71

3.4 Heterogeneous Chemical Reactions 75

3.5 Chapter Summary 82

3.6 Chapter Exercises 85

4 Transport Kinetics (Diffusion) 89

4.1 Flux 90

4.2 Fluxes and Forces 91

4.3 Common Transport Modes (Force/Flux Pairs) 93

4.4 Phenomenological Treatment of Diffusion 95

4.5 Atomistic Treatment of Diffusion 132

4.6 Chapter Summary 146

4.7 Chapter Exercises 149

II Applications of Materials Kinetics 155

5 Gas-Solid Kinetic Processes 157

5.1 Adsorption/Desorption 157

5.2 Active Gas Corrosion 163

5.3 Chemical Vapor Deposition 172

5.4 Atomic Layer Deposition 183

5.5 Passive Oxidation 186

5.6 Chapter Summary 192

5.7 Chapter Exercises 195

6 Liquid-Solid and Solid-Solid Phase Transformations 199

6.1 What is a Phase Transformation? 199

6.2 Driving Forces for Transformation: Temperature and Composition 201

6.3 Spinodal Decomposition: A Continuous Phase Transformation 206

6.4 Surfaces and Interfaces 208

6.5 Nucleation 216

6.6 Growth 231

6.7 Nucleation and Growth Combined 235

6.8 Solidification 242

6.9 Martensitic Transformations 251

6.10 Chapter Summary 253

6.11 Chapter Exercises 258

7 Microstructural Evolution 263

7.1 Capillary forces 263

7.2 Surface Evolution 268

7.3 Coarsening 270

7.4 Grain growth 273

7.5 Sintering 275

7.6 Chapter Summary 278

7.7 Chapter Exercises 280

8 Bibliography 283

III Appendices 285

A Units 287

B Periodic Table 291

C Answers to Selected Calculation Questions 293