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Materials Science and Engineering: An Introduction, Enhanced eText, 10th Edition

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Materials Science and Engineering: An Introduction, Enhanced eText, 10th Edition

William D. Callister Jr., David G. Rethwisch

ISBN: 978-1-119-40549-8 January 2018

Description

Materials Science and Engineering: An Introduction promotes student understanding of the three primary types of materials (metals, ceramics, and polymers) and composites, as well as the relationships that exist between the structural elements of materials and their properties. 

The Enhanced E-Text is also available bundled with an abridged print companion and can be ordered by contacting customer service here:
ISBN: 9781119463153 
Price: $97.95
Canadian Price: $111.50

 

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LIST OF SYMBOLS xix

1. Introduction 1

Learning Objectives 2

1.1 Historical Perspective 2

1.2 Materials Science and Engineering 3

1.3 Why Study Materials Science and Engineering? 5

1.4 Classification of Materials 7

1.5 Advanced Materials 14

1.6 Modern Materials’ Needs 16

Summary 17

References 18

2. Atomic Structure and Interatomic Bonding 19

Learning Objectives 20

2.1 Introduction 20

ATOMIC STRUCTURE 20

2.2 Fundamental Concepts 20

2.3 Electrons in Atoms 22

2.4 The Periodic Table 28

ATOMIC BONDING IN SOLIDS 30

2.5 Bonding Forces and Energies 30

2.6 Primary Interatomic Bonds 32

2.7 Secondary Bonding or van der Waals Bonding 39

2.8 Mixed Bonding 43

2.9 Molecules 44

2.10 Bonding Type-Material Classification Correlations 44

Summary 45

Equation Summary 46

List of Symbols 46

Important Terms and Concepts 46

References 47

3. The Structure of Crystalline Solids 48

Learning Objectives 49

3.1 Introduction 49

CRYSTAL STRUCTURES 49

3.2 Fundamental Concepts 49

3.3 Unit Cells 50

3.4 Metallic Crystal Structures 51

3.5 Density Computations 57

3.6 Polymorphism and Allotropy 57

3.7 Crystal Systems 59

CRYSTALLOGRAPHIC POINTS, DIRECTIONS, AND PLANES 61

3.8 Point Coordinates 61

3.9 Crystallographic Directions 64

3.10 Crystallographic Planes 70

3.11 Linear and Planar Densities 76

3.12 Close-Packed Crystal Structures 77

CRYSTALLINE AND NONCRYSTALLINE MATERIALS 79

3.13 Single Crystals 79

3.14 Polycrystalline Materials 79

3.15 Anisotropy 81

3.16 X-Ray Diffraction: Determination of Crystal Structures 82

3.17 Noncrystalline Solids 87

Summary 88

Equation Summary 90

List of Symbols 90

Important Terms and Concepts 91

References 91

4. Imperfections in Solids 92

Learning Objectives 93

4.1 Introduction 93

POINT DEFECTS 93

4.2 Vacancies and Self-Interstitials 93

4.3 Impurities in Solids 95

4.4 Specification of Composition 98

MISCELLANEOUS IMPERFECTIONS 102

4.5 Dislocations—Linear Defects 102

4.6 Interfacial Defects 105

4.7 Bulk or Volume Defects 109

4.8 Atomic Vibrations 109

MICROSCOPIC EXAMINATION 110

4.9 Basic Concepts of Microscopy 110

4.10 Microscopic Techniques 111

4.11 Grain-Size Determination 115

Summary 118

Equation Summary 119

List of Symbols 120

Important Terms and Concepts 120

References 120

5. Diffusion 121

Learning Objectives 122

5.1 Introduction 122

5.2 Diffusion Mechanisms 123

5.3 Fick’s First Law 124

5.4 Fick’s Second Law—Nonsteady-State Diffusion 126

5.5 Factors That Influence Diffusion 130

5.6 Diffusion in Semiconducting Materials 135

5.7 Other Diffusion Paths 139

Summary 139

Equation Summary 140

List of Symbols 141

Important Terms and Concepts 141

References 141

6. Mechanical Properties of Metals 142

Learning Objectives 143

6.1 Introduction 143

6.2 Concepts of Stress and Strain 144

ELASTIC DEFORMATION 148

6.3 Stress–Strain Behavior 148

6.4 Anelasticity 151

6.5 Elastic Properties of Materials 151

PLASTIC DEFORMATION 154

6.6 Tensile Properties 154

6.7 True Stress and Strain 161

6.8 Elastic Recovery After Plastic Deformation 164

6.9 Compressive, Shear, and Torsional Deformations 165

6.10 Hardness 165

PROPERTY VARIABILITY AND DESIGN/SAFETY FACTORS 171

6.11 Variability of Material Properties 171

6.12 Design/Safety Factors 173

Summary 177

Important Terms and Concepts 178

References 178

7. Dislocations and Strengthening Mechanisms 180

Learning Objectives 181

7.1 Introduction 181

DISLOCATIONS AND PLASTIC DEFORMATION 181

7.2 Basic Concepts 182

7.3 Characteristics of Dislocations 184

7.4 Slip Systems 185

7.5 Slip in Single Crystals 187

7.6 Plastic Deformation of Polycrystalline Materials 190

7.7 Deformation by Twinning 192

MECHANISMS OF STRENGTHENING IN METALS 193

7.8 Strengthening by Grain Size Reduction 193

7.9 Solid-Solution Strengthening 195

7.10 Strain Hardening 196

RECOVERY, RECRYSTALLIZATION, AND GRAIN GROWTH 199

7.11 Recovery 199

7.12 Recrystallization 200

7.13 Grain Growth 204

Summary 206

Equation Summary 208

List of Symbols 208

Important Terms and Concepts 208

References 208

8. Failure 209

Learning Objectives 210

8.1 Introduction 210

FRACTURE 211

8.2 Fundamentals of Fracture 211

8.3 Ductile Fracture 211

8.4 Brittle Fracture 213

8.5 Principles of Fracture Mechanics 215

8.6 Fracture Toughness Testing 224

FATIGUE 229

8.7 Cyclic Stresses 229

8.8 The S–N Curve 231

8.9 Crack Initiation and Propagation 235

8.10 Factors That Affect Fatigue Life 237

8.11 Environmental Effects 239

CREEP 240

8.12 Generalized Creep Behavior 240

8.13 Stress and Temperature Effects 241

8.14 Data Extrapolation Methods 244

8.15 Alloys for High-Temperature Use 245

Summary 246

Equation Summary 248

List of Symbols 249

Important Terms and Concepts 249

References 249

9. Phase Diagrams 251

Learning Objectives 252

9.1 Introduction 252

DEFINITIONS AND BASIC CONCEPTS 252

9.2 Solubility Limit 253

9.3 Phases 254

9.4 Microstructure 254

9.5 Phase Equilibria 254

9.6 One-Component (or Unary) Phase Diagrams 255

BINARY PHASE DIAGRAMS 256

9.7 Binary Isomorphous Systems 257

9.8 Interpretation of Phase Diagrams 259

9.9 Development of Microstructure in Isomorphous Alloys 263

9.10 Mechanical Properties of Isomorphous Alloys 266

9.11 Binary Eutectic Systems 266

9.12 Development of Microstructure in Eutectic Alloys 272

9.13 Equilibrium Diagrams Having Intermediate Phases or Compounds 279

9.14 Eutectoid and Peritectic Reactions 282

9.15 Congruent Phase Transformations 283

9.16 Ceramic and Ternary Phase Diagrams 284

9.17 The Gibbs Phase Rule 284

THE IRON–CARBON SYSTEM 287

9.18 The Iron–Iron Carbide (Fe–Fe3C) Phase Diagram 287

9.19 Development of Microstructure in Iron–Carbon Alloys 290

9.20 The Influence of Other Alloying Elements 298

Summary 298

Equation Summary 300

List of Symbols 301

Important Terms and Concepts 301

References 302

10. Phase Transformations: Development of Microstructure and Alteration of Mechanical Properties 303

Learning Objectives 304

10.1 Introduction 304

PHASE TRANSFORMATIONS 304

10.2 Basic Concepts 304

10.3 The Kinetics of Phase Transformations 305

10.4 Metastable Versus Equilibrium States 316

MICROSTRUCTURAL AND PROPERTY CHANGES IN IRON–CARBON ALLOYS 317

10.5 Isothermal Transformation Diagrams 317

10.6 Continuous-Cooling Transformation Diagrams 328

10.7 Mechanical Behavior of Iron–Carbon Alloys 331

10.8 Tempered Martensite 335

10.9 Review of Phase Transformations and Mechanical Properties for Iron–Carbon Alloys 338

Summary 344

Equation Summary 345

List of Symbols 346

Important Terms and Concepts 346

References 346

11. Applications and Processing of Metal Alloys 347

Learning Objectives 348

11.1 Introduction 348

TYPES OF METAL ALLOYS 349

11.2 Ferrous Alloys 349

11.3 Nonferrous Alloys 361

FABRICATION OF METALS 373

11.4 Forming Operations 373

11.5 Casting 375

11.6 Miscellaneous Techniques 376

11.7 3D Printing (Additive Manufacturing) 378

THERMAL PROCESSING OF METALS 382

11.8 Annealing Processes 382

11.9 Heat Treatment of Steels 384

11.10 Precipitation Hardening 394

Summary 401

Important Terms and Concepts 403

References 403

12. Structures and Properties of Ceramics 405

Learning Objectives 406

12.1 Introduction 406

CERAMIC STRUCTURES 406

12.2 Crystal Structures 407

12.3 Silicate Ceramics 415

12.4 Carbon 419

12.5 Imperfections in Ceramics 420

12.6 Diffusion in Ionic Materials 424

12.7 Ceramic Phase Diagrams 425

MECHANICAL PROPERTIES 428

12.8 Brittle Fracture of Ceramics 429

12.9 Stress–Strain Behavior 433

12.10 Mechanisms of Plastic Deformation 435

12.11 Miscellaneous Mechanical Considerations 437

Summary 439

Equation Summary 440

List of Symbols 441

Important Terms and Concepts 441

References 441

13. Applications and Processing of Ceramics 442

Learning Objectives 443

13.1 Introduction 443

TYPES AND APPLICATIONS OF CERAMICS 444

13.2 Glasses 444

13.3 Glass–Ceramics 444

13.4 Clay Products 446

13.5 Refractories 446

13.6 Abrasives 449

13.7 Cements 451

13.8 Ceramic Biomaterials 452

13.9 Carbons 453

13.10 Advanced Ceramics 456

FABRICATION AND PROCESSING OF CERAMICS 461

13.11 Fabrication and Processing of Glasses and Glass–Ceramics 462

13.12 Fabrication and Processing of Clay Products 466

13.13 Powder Pressing 471

13.14 Tape Casting 473

13.15 3D Printing of Ceramic Materials 474

Summary 476

Important Terms and Concepts 478

References 478

14. Polymer Structures 479

Learning Objectives 480

14.1 Introduction 480

14.2 Hydrocarbon Molecules 480

14.3 Polymer Molecules 483

14.4 The Chemistry of Polymer Molecules 483

14.5 Molecular Weight 487

14.6 Molecular Shape 490

14.7 Molecular Structure 492

14.8 Molecular Configurations 493

14.9 Thermoplastic and Thermosetting Polymers 496

14.10 Copolymers 497

14.11 Polymer Crystallinity 498

14.12 Polymer Crystals 502

14.13 Defects in Polymers 504

14.14 Diffusion in Polymeric Materials 505

Summary 507

Equation Summary 509

List of Symbols 509

Important Terms and Concepts 510

References 510

15. Characteristics, Applications, and Processing of Polymers 511

Learning Objectives 512

15.1 Introduction 512

MECHANICAL BEHAVIOR OF POLYMERS 512

15.2 Stress–Strain Behavior 512

15.3 Macroscopic Deformation 515

15.4 Viscoelastic Deformation 515

15.5 Fracture of Polymers 519

15.6 Miscellaneous Mechanical Characteristics 521

MECHANISMS OF DEFORMATION AND FOR STRENGTHENING OF POLYMERS 522

15.7 Deformation of Semicrystalline Polymers 522

15.8 Factors That Influence the Mechanical Properties of Semicrystalline Polymers 524

15.9 Deformation of Elastomers 528

CRYSTALLIZATION, MELTING, AND GLASSTRANSITION PHENOMENA IN POLYMERS 530

15.10 Crystallization 531

15.11 Melting 532

15.12 The Glass Transition 532

15.13 Melting and Glass Transition Temperatures 532

15.14 Factors That Influence Melting and Glass Transition Temperatures 534

POLYMER TYPES 536

15.15 Plastics 536

15.16 Elastomers 539

15.17 Fibers 541

15.18 Miscellaneous Applications 542

15.19 Polymeric Biomaterials 543

15.20 Advanced Polymeric Materials 545

POLYMER SYNTHESIS AND PROCESSING 549

15.21 Polymerization 549

15.22 Polymer Additives 551

15.23 Forming Techniques for Plastics 553

15.24 Fabrication of Elastomers 555

15.25 Fabrication of Fibers and Films 555

15.26 3D Printing of Polymers 557

Summary 560

Equation Summary 562

List of Symbols 562

Important Terms and Concepts 563

References 563

16. Composites 564

Learning Objectives 565

16.1 Introduction 565

PARTICLE-REINFORCED COMPOSITES 567

16.2 Large-Particle Composites 567

16.3 Dispersion-Strengthened Composites 571

FIBER-REINFORCED COMPOSITES 572

16.4 Influence of Fiber Length 572

16.5 Influence of Fiber Orientation and Concentration 573

16.6 The Fiber Phase 581

16.7 The Matrix Phase 583

16.8 Polymer-Matrix Composites 583

16.9 Metal-Matrix Composites 589

16.10 Ceramic-Matrix Composites 590

16.11 Carbon–Carbon Composites 592

16.12 Hybrid Composites 592

16.13 Processing of Fiber-Reinforced Composites 593

STRUCTURAL COMPOSITES 595

16.14 Laminar Composites 595

16.15 Sandwich Panels 597

16.16 Nanocomposites 600

Summary 602

Equation Summary 605

List of Symbols 606

Important Terms and Concepts 606

References 606

17. Corrosion and Degradation of Materials 607

Learning Objectives 608

17.1 Introduction 608

CORROSION OF METALS 609

17.2 Electrochemical Considerations 609

17.3 Corrosion Rates 615

17.4 Prediction of Corrosion Rates 617

17.5 Passivity 624

17.6 Environmental Effects 625

17.7 Forms of Corrosion 625

17.8 Corrosion Environments 633

17.9 Corrosion Prevention 633

17.10 Oxidation 636

CORROSION OF CERAMIC MATERIALS 639

DEGRADATION OF POLYMERS 639

17.11 Swelling and Dissolution 640

17.12 Bond Rupture 642

17.13 Weathering 643

Summary 644

Equation Summary 646

List of Symbols 646

Important Terms and Concepts 647

References 647

18. Electrical Properties 648

Learning Objectives 649

18.1 Introduction 649

ELECTRICAL CONDUCTION 649

18.2 Ohm’s Law 649

18.3 Electrical Conductivity 650

18.4 Electronic and Ionic Conduction 651

18.5 Energy Band Structures in Solids 651

18.6 Conduction in Terms of Band and Atomic Bonding Models 653

18.7 Electron Mobility 655

18.8 Electrical Resistivity of Metals 656

18.9 Electrical Characteristics of Commercial Alloys 659

SEMICONDUCTIVITY 659

18.10 Intrinsic Semiconduction 659

18.11 Extrinsic Semiconduction 662

18.12 The Temperature Dependence of Carrier Concentration 665

18.13 Factors That Affect Carrier Mobility 667

18.14 The Hall Effect 671

18.15 Semiconductor Devices 673

ELECTRICAL CONDUCTION IN IONIC CERAMICS AND IN POLYMERS 679

18.16 Conduction in Ionic Materials 680

18.17 Electrical Properties of Polymers 680

DIELECTRIC BEHAVIOR 681

18.18 Capacitance 681

18.19 Field Vectors and Polarization 683

18.20 Types of Polarization 686

18.21 Frequency Dependence of the Dielectric Constant 688

18.22 Dielectric Strength 689

18.23 Dielectric Materials 689

OTHER ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF MATERIALS 689

18.24 Ferroelectricity 689

18.25 Piezoelectricity 690

Summary 692

Equation Summary 695

List of Symbols 696

Important Terms and Concepts 696

References 697

19. Thermal Properties 698

Learning Objectives 699

19.1 Introduction 699

19.2 Heat Capacity 699

19.3 Thermal Expansion 703

19.4 Thermal Conductivity 706

19.5 Thermal Stresses 709

Summary 711

Equation Summary 712

List of Symbols 712

Important Terms and Concepts 713

References 713

20. Magnetic Properties 714

Learning Objectives 715

20.1 Introduction 715

20.2 Basic Concepts 715

20.3 Diamagnetism and Paramagnetism 719

20.4 Ferromagnetism 721

20.5 Antiferromagnetism and Ferrimagnetism 722

20.6 The Influence of Temperature on Magnetic Behavior 726

20.7 Domains and Hysteresis 727

20.8 Magnetic Anisotropy 730

20.9 Soft Magnetic Materials 731

20.10 Hard Magnetic Materials 733

20.11 Magnetic Storage 736

20.12 Superconductivity 739

Summary 742

Equation Summary 744

List of Symbols 744

Important Terms and Concepts 745

References 745

21. Optical Properties 746

Learning Objectives 747

21.1 Introduction 747

BASIC CONCEPTS 747

21.2 Electromagnetic Radiation 747

21.3 Light Interactions with Solids 749

21.4 Atomic and Electronic Interactions 750

OPTICAL PROPERTIES OF METALS 751

OPTICAL PROPERTIES OF NONMETALS 752

21.5 Refraction 752

21.6 Reflection 754

21.7 Absorption 754

21.8 Transmission 758

21.9 Color 758

21.10 Opacity and Translucency in Insulators 760

APPLICATIONS OF OPTICAL PHENOMENA 761

21.11 Luminescence 761

21.12 Photoconductivity 761

21.13 Lasers 764

21.14 Optical Fibers in Communications 768

Summary 770

Equation Summary 772

List of Symbols 773

Important Terms and Concepts 773

References 774

22. Environmental, and Societal Issues in Materials Science and Engineering 775

Learning Objectives 776

22.1 Introduction 776

22.2 Environmental and Societal Considerations 776

22.3 Recycling Issues in Materials Science and Engineering 779

Summary 786

References 786

Questions and Problems P-1

Reserve Questions and Problems R-1

Appendix A The International System of Units (SI) A-1

Appendix B Properties of Selected Engineering Materials A-3

B.1 Density A-3

B.2 Modulus of Elasticity A-6

B.3 Poisson’s Ratio A-10

B.4 Strength and Ductility A-11

B.5 Plane Strain Fracture Toughness A-16

B.6 Linear Coefficient of Thermal Expansion A-18

B.7 Thermal Conductivity A-21

B.8 Specific Heat A-24

B.9 Electrical Resistivity A-27

B.10 Metal Alloy Compositions A-30

Appendix C Costs and Relative Costs for Selected Engineering Materials A-32

Appendix D Repeat Unit Structures for Common Polymers A-37

Appendix E Glass Transition and Melting Temperatures for Common Polymeric Materials A-41

Glossary G-1

Answers to Selected Problems PA-1

Index I-1