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Materials and Structures under Shock and Impact



Materials and Structures under Shock and Impact

Patrice Bailly

ISBN: 978-1-118-81571-7 December 2013 Wiley-ISTE 311 Pages


In risk studies, engineers often have to consider the consequences of an accident leading to a shock on a construction. This can concern the impact of a ground vehicle or aircraft, or the effects of an explosion on an industrial site.

This book presents a didactic approach starting with the theoretical elements of the mechanics of materials and structures, in order to develop their applications in the cases of shocks and impacts. The latter are studied on a local scale at first. They lead to stresses and strains in the form of waves propagating through the material, this movement then extending to the whole of the structure.

The first part of the book is devoted to the study of solid dynamics where nonlinear behaviors come into play. The second part covers structural dynamics and the evaluation of the transient response introduced at the global scale of a construction. Practical methods, simplified methods and methods that are in current use by engineers are also proposed throughout the book.

The aim of this book is to present theoretical elements regarding solids and structures, as well as modeling tools in order to study the vulnerability of a structure to a short duration action, generally of accidental nature. The book takes the point of view of an engineer seeking for the modeling of the physics at stake to relevantly carry out his study. The book originality is that it gathers elements from various fields of engineering sciences, for the purpose of a practical objective.

Introduction xi


Chapter 1. Motion within Solids 3

1.1. Representation of the medium 3

1.2. Elastodynamic equations 8

1.3. One-dimensional waves 12

1.4. Harmonic waves 16

1.5. Viscoelasticity 23

Chapter 2. Shocks in Solids 37

2.1. Discontinuity of stress and velocity 37

2.2. Wave course 42

2.3. Shocks of solids 50

2.4. Shocks on viscoelastic solids 59

Chapter 3. Waves and Shocks in a Nonlinear Medium 67

3.1. Irreversible phenomena 67

3.2. Adiabatic shear 76

3.3. Propagation in uniaxial stress state 80

3.4. Uniaxial strain state 88

3.5. Shock waves 95

Chapter 4. Dynamic Materials Testing 103

4.1. Dynamic testing 103

4.2. Hopkinson pressure bars 106

4.3. Testing by direct impact 112

4.4. Taylor impact test 113

4.5. Plate impact 115


Chapter 5. Impact on a Simple Structure 119

5.1. Basic structure119

5.2. Shock response spectrum 124

5.3. Iso-damage curves 135

5.4. Modeling a real structure 138

Chapter 6. Collisions of Structures 153

6.1. Shocks on elastic structures 153

6.2. Shock with crushing 159

6.3. Classification of shocks 168

Chapter 7. Explosions and Blasts 173

7.1. Accidental explosions 173

7.2. Pressure waves 179

7.3. Action of an explosion on a structure 188

7.4. Blast-structure coupling 194

Chapter 8. Mechanical Response of Beams 203

8.1. Dynamic beam models 203

8.2. Impacts on beams 211

8.3. Calculation by modal superposition 226

8.4. Dynamic buckling 239

Chapter 9. Responses of Multiple Degree of Freedom Structures 245

9.1. Modeling through a discrete system 245

9.2. Resolution by modal superposition 249

9.3. Fluid–structure coupling 255

Chapter 10. Response of a Nonlinear Structure 267

10.1. Nonlinear behavior of structures 267

10.2. Nonlinear system with one degree of freedom 281

10.3. The case of elastoplastic behavior 284

10.4. Approach of response to a violent impact 292

Bibliography 299

Index 309