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Materials in Energy Conversion, Harvesting, and Storage

Materials in Energy Conversion, Harvesting, and Storage

Kathy Lu

ISBN: 978-1-118-89238-1

Aug 2014

448 pages

$131.99

Description

First authored book to address materials' role in the quest for the next generation of energy materials

Energy balance, efficiency, sustainability, and so on, are some of many facets of energy challenges covered in current research. However, there has not been a monograph that directly covers a spectrum of materials issues in the context of energy conversion, harvesting and storage. Addressing one of the most pressing problems of our time, Materials in Energy Conversion, Harvesting, and Storage illuminates the roles and performance requirements of materials in energy and demonstrates why energy materials are as critical and far-reaching as energy itself. Each chapter starts out by explaining the role of a specific energy process in today’s energy landscape, followed by explanation of the fundamental energy conversion, harvesting, and storage processes.

Well-researched and coherently written, Materials in Energy Conversion, Harvesting, and Storage covers:

  • The availability, accessibility, and affordability of different energy sources
  • Energy production processes involving material uses and performance requirements in fossil, nuclear, solar, bio, wind, hydrothermal, geothermal, and ocean energy systems
  • Issues of materials science in energy conversion systems
  • Issues of energy harvesting and storage (including hydrogen storage) and materials needs

Throughout the book, illustrations and images clarify and simplify core concepts, techniques, and processes. References at the end of each chapter serve as a gateway to the primary literature in the field.

All chapters are self-contained units, enabling instructors to easily adapt this book for coursework. This book is suitable for students and professors in science and engineering who look to obtain comprehensive understanding of different energy processes and materials issues. In setting forth the latest advances and new frontiers of research, experienced materials researchers and engineers can utilize it as a comprehensive energy material reference book.

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Dedication

Preface

Table of Contents

About the Author

Chapter 1 Energy Resources, Greenhouse Gases, and Materials

1.1 Energy Supply and Consumption 2

1.2 Energy Problems and Challenges 5

1.3 Current State of Improving Energy Efficiency 9

1.4 Inseparable Links between Energy and Materials 13

1.5 Terms Related to Energy and Power 15

1.6 Outline of This Book 17

References 17

Chapter 2 Fossil Energy and Materials

2.1 Fossil Fuels 2

2.2 Existing Coal-Fired Power Plants 6

2.3 Materials for Existing Coal-Fired Power Plants 12

2.4 Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle Plants 23

2.5 Materials for Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle Plants 25

2.6 Oxy-Fuel Combustion Plants and Material Needs 28

2.7 Materials in Oil and Gas Energy Conversion 42

2.8 Carbon Capture and Storage 45

2.9 Summary 70

References 71

Chapter 3 Nuclear Energy Conversion and Materials

3.1 State of Nuclear Energy 2

3.2 Advantages and Disadvantages of Nuclear Energy 5

3.3 Nuclear Fission and Fusion 7

3.4 Fission Process for Nuclear Energy Generation 13

3.5 Two Different Fuel Cycles 14

3.6 Nuclear Fuel Supply 19

3.7 Classification of Nuclear Fission Reactors 23

3.8 Commercial Reactors 27

3.9 Future Reactors 31

3.10 Nuclear Materials 34

3.11 Nuclear Waste Management 58

3.12 Fusion Reactors and Material Issues 70

3.13 Summary 81

References 81

Chapter 4 Solar Energy and Materials

4.1 Solar Energy 2

4.2 Photovoltaic Cell Fundamentals 7

4.3 First-Generation Solar Cells 8

4.4 Second-Generation Solar Cells 12

4.5 Third-Generation Solar Cells 29

4.6 Dye Sensitized Solar Cells 41

4.7 Organic Photovoltaics 54

4.8 High Efficiency Concentrator Photovoltaics 63

4.9 Summary 67

References: 68

Chapter 5 Bioenergy Conversion and Materials

5.1 Bioenergy 2

5.2 Biomass and Thermal Conversion 5

5.3 Biofuel 25

5.4 Bioenergy Sustainability 45

5.5 Summary 47

References: 48

Chapter 6 Wind Energy Conversion and Materials

6.1 Wind Energy Resources 2

6.2 Advantages and Issues of Wind Energy Generation 5

6.3 Wind Turbines 7

6.4 Material Issues 9

6.5 Wind Turbine Failures 12

6.6 Summary 14

References: 15

Chapter 7 Hydro, Geothermal, Ocean Energy and Materials

7.1 Hydropower 2

7.2 Geothermal Energy 6

7.3 Ocean Energy 14

7.4 Summary 20

References 20

Chapter 8 Fuel Cells and Materials

8.1 What Is a Fuel Cell? 2

8.2 Applications and Characteristics of Fuel Cells 7

8.3 Alkaline Fuel Cells 9

8.4 Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells 24

8.5 Direct Methanol Fuel Cells 53

8.6 Phosphoric Acid Fuel Cells 67

8.7 Molten Carbonate Fuel Cells 74

8.8 Solid Oxide Fuel Cells 90

8.9 Summary 126

References: 126

Chapter 9 Mechanoelectric Energy Harvesting and Materials

9.1 Energy Harvesting for Low Power Applications 2

9.2 Fundamental Mechanisms of Mechanoelectric Energy Conversion 5

9.3 Mechanoelectric Energy Harvesting Materials 11

9.4 Sources of Mechanoelectric Energy 17

9.5 Different Energy Harvesting Methods 19

9.6 Summary 27

References: 28

Chapter 10 Thermoelectric Energy Conversion and Materials

10.1 Thermoelectric Energy Conversion Principles 2

10.2 Thermoelectric Energy Potentials and Applications 11

10.3 Thermoelectric Materials 13

10.4 Thermoelectric Material Processing Methods 27

10.5 Summary 31

References: 31

Chapter 11 Energy Storage and Materials

11.1 Energy Storage 2

11.2 Battery 8

11.3 Electrochemical Capacitors 58

11.4 Li-ion Capacitors 96

11.5 Summary 98

References 98

Chapter 12 Hydrogen Storage and Materials

12.1 Hydrogen Economy 2

12.2 Hydrogen Storage as High Pressure Gas 8

12.3 Hydrogen Storage as Liquid 11

12.4 Hydrogen Storage in Hydrides 13

12.5 Hydrogen Storage in Carbonaceous Materials 29

12.6 Hydrogen Storage in Zeolites and Glass Microspheres 41

12.7 Hydrogen Storage in Organic Frameworks 42

12.8 Hydrogen Storage in Polymers 44

12.9 Hydrogen Storage in Formic Acid 44

12.10 Summary 46

References: 47