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Mauna Loa Revealed: Structure, Composition, History, and Hazards

Mauna Loa Revealed: Structure, Composition, History, and Hazards

J. M. Rhodes (Editor), John P. Lockwood (Editor)

ISBN: 978-1-118-66433-9 March 2013 American Geophysical Union 348 Pages

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Published by the American Geophysical Union as part of the Geophysical Monograph Series, Volume 92.

Mauna Loa is a volcano of superlatives: it is the largest active volcano on Earth and among the most productive. This volume serves to place on record the current state of our knowledge concerning Mauna Loa at the beginning of the Decade Volcano Project. The scope is broad, encompassing the geologic and exploratory history of the volcano, an overview of its submarine geology, its structure, petrologic and geochemical characteristics, and what Mauna Loa has to tell us about the Hawaiian mantle plume; it covers also remote sensing methods and the use of gravity, seismic and deformational studies for eruption monitoring and forecasting, hazards associated with the volcano, and even the importance of a changing volcanic landscape with a wide spectrum of climate zones as an ecological laboratory.

We have made a deliberate effort to present a comprehensive spectrum of current Mauna Loa research by building on a December 1993 symposium at the AGU Fall Meeting that considered (1) what is currently known about Mauna Loa, (2) critical problems that need to be addressed, and (3) the technical means to solve these problems, and by soliciting contributions that were not part of the symposium. We encouraged authors to consider how their papers relate to others in the volume through crossreferencing. The intent was that this monograph should be a book about Mauna Loa rather than a collection of disparate papers.

J. M. Rhodes and John P. Lockwood xi

Geology and General Studies

Mauna Loa Volcano: Historical Eruptions, Exploration, and Observations (1779-1910)
Walther M. Barnard 1

Offshore Geology of Mauna Loa and Adjacent Areas, Hawaii
James G. Moore and William W. Chadwick, Jr. 21

Declining Growth of Mauna Loa During the Last 100,000 Years: Rates of Lava Accumulation vs.
Gravitational Subsidence
Peter W. Lipman 45

Mauna Loa Eruptive History—The Preliminary Radiocarbon Record
John P. Lockwood 81

Quiescent Outgassing of Mauna Loa Volcano, 1958 -1994
Steven Ryan 95

Biological Perspectives on Mauna Loa Volcano: A Model System for Ecological Research
Peter M. Vitousek, Gregory H. Aplet, James W. Raich, and John P. Lockwood 117

Geophysical Monitoring and Remote Sensing

Gravity Changes on Mauna Loa Volcano
Daniel J. Johnson 127

Remote Sensing on Mauna Loa
Anne B. Kahle, Michael J. Abrams, Elsa A. Abbott, Peter J. Mouginis-Mark, and Vincent J. Realmuto 145

Continuous Monitoring of Volcanoes With Borehole Strainmeters
Alan T. Linde and I. Selwyn Sacks 171

A Seismological Framework for Mauna Loa Volcano, Hawaii
Paul G. Okubo 187

Recent Inflation and Flank Movement of Mauna Loa Volcano
Asta Miklius, Michael Lisowski, Paul T. Delaney, Roger P. Denlinger, John J. Dvorak, Arnold T. Okamura, and Maurice K. Sako 199

Petrology and Geochemistry

An Empirical Glass-Composition-Based Geothermometer for Mauna Loa Lavas
Charlene Montierth, A. Dana Johnston, and Katharine V. Cashman 207

Olivine-Rich Submarine Basalts From the Southwest Rift Zone of Mauna Loa Volcano: Implications
for Magmatic Processes and Geochemical Evolution
Michael 0. Garcia, Thomas P. Hulsebosch, and J. Michael Rhodes 219

The 1852 and 1868 Mauna Loa Picrite Eruptions: Clues to Parental Magma Compositions and the
Magmatic Plumbing System
J. M. Rhodes 241

Episodic Trace Element and Isotopic Variations in Historical Mauna Loa Lavas: Implications for
Magma and Plume Dynamics
J. M. Rhodes and S. R. Hart 263

Isotopic Evolution of Mauna Loa Volcano: A View From the Submarine Southwest Rift Zone
Mark D. Kurz, T. C. Kenna, D. P. Kammer, J. Michael Rhodes, and Michael 0. Garcia 289

Contrasting Th/U in Historical Mauna Loa and Kilauea Lavas
Klaus Peter Jochum and Albrecht W. Hofmann 307

Volcanic Hazards

Applications of GIS to the Estimation of Lava Flow Hazards on Mauna Loa Volcano, Hawaii
Jim Kauahikaua, Sandy Margriter, Jack Lockwood, and Frank Trusdell 315

Lava Flow Hazards and Risk Assessment on Mauna Loa Volcano, Hawaii
Frank A. Trusdell 327

Forecasting Eruptions of Mauna Loa Volcano, Hawaii
Robert W. Decker, Fred W. Klein, Arnold T. Okamura, and Paul G. Okubo 337