**Chapter 1 Stress**

1.1 Introduction

1.2 Normal Stress Under Axial Loading

1.3 Direct Shear Stress

1.4 Bearing Stress

1.5 Stresses on Inclined Sections

1.6 Equality of Shear Stresses on Perpendicular Planes

**Chapter 2 Strain**

2.1 Displacement, Deformation, and the Concept of Strain

2.2 Normal Strain

2.3 Shear Strain

2.4 Thermal Strain

**Chapter 3 Mechanical Properties of Materials**

3.1 The Tension Test

3.2 The Stress–Strain Diagram

3.3 Hooke's Law

3.4 Poisson's Ratio

**Chapter 4 Design Concepts**

4.1 Introduction

4.2 Types of Loads

4.3 Safety

4.4 Allowable Stress Design

4.5 Load and Resistance Factor Design

**Chapter 5 Axial Deformation**

5.1 Introduction

5.2 Saint-Venant's Principle

5.3 Deformations in Axially Loaded Bars

5.4 Deformations in a System of Axially Loaded Bars

5.5 Statically Indeterminate Axially Loaded Members

5.6 Thermal Effects on Axial Deformation

5.7 Stress Concentrations

**Chapter 6 Torsion**

6.1 Introduction

6.2 Torsional Shear Strain

6.3 Torsional Shear Stress

6.4 Stresses on Oblique Planes

6.5 Torsional Deformations

6.6 Torsion Sign Conventions

6.7 Gears in Torsion Assemblies

6.8 Power Transmission

6.9 Statically Indeterminate Torsion Members

6.10 Stress Concentrations in Circular Shafts Under Torsional Loadings

6.11 Torsion of Noncircular Sections

6.12 Torsion of Thin-Walled Tubes: Shear Flow

**Chapter 7 Equilibrium of Beams**

7.1 Introduction

7.2 Shear and Moment in Beams

7.3 Graphical Method for Constructing Shear and Moment Diagrams

7.4 Discontinuity Functions to Represent Load, Shear, and Moment

**Chapter 8 Bending**

8.1 Introduction

8.2 Flexural Strains

8.3 Normal Stresses in Beams

8.4 Analysis of Bending Stresses in Beams

8.5 Introductory Beam Design for Strength

8.6 Flexural Stresses in Beams of Two Materials

8.7 Bending Due to Eccentric Axial Load

8.8 Unsymmetric Bending

8.9 Stress Concentrations Under Flexural Loadings

8.10 Bending of Curved Bars

**Chapter 9 Shear Stress in Beams**

9.1 Introduction

9.2 Resultant Forces Produced by Bending Stresses

9.3 The Shear Stress Formula

9.4 The First Moment of Area Q

9.5 Shear Stresses in Beams of Rectangular Cross Section

9.6 Shear Stresses in Beams of Circular Cross Section

9.7 Shear Stresses in Webs of Flanged Beams

9.8 Shear Flow in Built-Up Members

9.9 Shear Stress and Shear Flow in Thin-Walled Members

9.10 Shear Centers of Thin-Walled Open Sections

**Chapter 10 Beam Deflections**

10.1 Introduction

10.2 Moment-Curvature Relationship

10.3 The Differential Equation of the Elastic Curve

10.4 Deflections by Integration of a Moment Equation

10.5 Deflections by Integration of Shear-Force or Load Equations

10.6 Deflections Using Discontinuity Functions

10.7 Method of Superposition

**Chapter 11 Statically Indeterminate Beams**

11.1 Introduction

11.2 Types of Statically Indeterminate Beams

11.3 The Integration Method

11.4 Use of Discontinuity Functions for Statically Indeterminate Beams

11.5 The Superposition Method

**Chapter 12 Stress Transformations**

12.1 Introduction

12.2 Stress at a General Point in an Arbitrarily Loaded Body

12.3 Equilibrium of the Stress Element

12.4 Plane Stress

12.5 Generating the Stress Element

12.6 Equilibrium Method for Plane Stress Transformations

12.7 General Equations of Plane Stress Transformation

12.8 Principal Stresses and Maximum Shear Stress

12.9 Presentation of Stress Transformation Results

12.10 Mohr's Circle for Plane Stress

12.11 General State of Stress at a Point

**Chapter 13 Strain Transformations**

13.1 Introduction

13.2 Plane Strain

13.3 Transformation Equations for Plane Strain

13.4 Principal Strains and Maximum Shearing Strain

13.5 Presentation of Strain Transformation Results

13.6 Mohr's Circle for Plane Strain

13.7 Strain Measurement and Strain Rosettes

13.8 Generalized Hooke's Law for sotropic Materials

13.9 Generalized Hooke's Law for Orthotropic Materials

**Chapter 14 Pressure Vessels**

14.1 Introduction

14.2 Thin-Walled Spherical Pressure Vessels

14.3 Thin-Walled Cylindrical Pressure Vessels

14.4 Strains in Thin-Walled Pressure Vessels

14.5 Stresses in Thick-Walled Cylinders

14.6 Deformation in Thick-Walled Cylinders

14.7 Interference Fits

**Chapter 15 Combined Loads**

15.1 Introduction

15.2 Combined Axial and Torsional Loads

15.3 Principal Stresses in a Flexural Member

15.4 General Combined Loadings

15.5 Theories of Failure

**Chapter 16 Columns**

16.1 Introduction

16.2 Buckling of Pin-Ended Columns

16.3 The Effect of End Conditions on Column Buckling

16.4 The Secant Formula

16.5 Empirical Column Formulas— Centric Loading

16.6 Eccentrically Loaded Columns

**Chapter 17 Energy Methods**

17.1 Introduction

17.2 Work and Strain Energy

17.3 Elastic Strain Energy for Axial Deformation

17.4 Elastic Strain Energy for Torsional Deformation

17.5 Elastic Strain Energy for Flexural Deformation

17.6 Impact Loading

17.7 Work-Energy Method for Single Loads

17.8 Method of Virtual Work

17.9 Deflections of Trusses by the Virtual-Work Method

17.10 Deflections of Beams by the Virtual-Work Method

17.11 Castigliano's Second Theorem

17.12 Calculating Deflections of Trusses by Castigliano's Theorem

17.13 Calculating Deflections of Beams by Castigliano's Theorem

**Appendix A Geometric Properties of an Area**

A.1 Centroid of an Area

A.2 Moment of Inertia for an Area

A.3 Product of Inertia for an Area

A.4 Principal Moments of Inertia

A.5 Mohr's Circle for Principal Moments of Inertia

**Appendix B Geometric Properties of Structural Steel Shapes**

**Appendix C Table of Beam Slopes and Deflections**

**Appendix D Average Properties of Selected Materials**

Index