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Membranes for Membrane Reactors: Preparation, Optimization and Selection

Membranes for Membrane Reactors: Preparation, Optimization and Selection

Angelo Basile (Editor), Fausto Gallucci (Co-Editor)

ISBN: 978-0-470-97756-9 January 2011 640 Pages


A membrane reactor is a device for simultaneously performing a reaction and a membrane-based separation in the same physical device. Therefore, the membrane not only plays the role of a separator, but also takes place in the reaction itself.

This text covers, in detail, the preparation and characterisation of all types of membranes used in membranes reactors. Each membrane synthesis process used by membranologists is explained by well known scientists in their specific research field.

The book opens with an exhaustive review and introduction to membrane reactors, introducing the recent advances in this field. The following chapters concern the preparation of both organic and inorganic, and in both cases, a deep analysis of all the techniques used to prepare membrane are presented and discussed. A brief historical introduction for each technique is also included, followed by a complete description of the technique as well as the main results presented in the international specialized literature. In order to give to the reader a summary look to the overall work, a conclusive chapter is included for collecting all the information presented in the previous chapters.

Key features:

  • Fills a gap in the market for a scientific book describing the preparation and characterization of all the kind of membranes used in membrane reactors
  • Discusses an important topic - there is increasing emphasis on membranes in general, due to their use as energy efficient separation tools and the ‘green’ chemistry opportunities they offer
  • Includes a review about membrane reactors, several chapters concerning the preparation organic, inorganic, dense, porous, and composite membranes and a conclusion with a comparison among the different membrane preparation techniques


Introduction – A Review of Membrane Reactors (Fausto Gallucci, Angelo Basile and Faisal Ibney Hai).

1 Introduction.

2 Membranes for Membrane Reactors.

2.1 Polymeric Membranes.

2.2 Inorganic Membranes.

2.3 Membrane Housing.

2.4 Membrane Separation Regime.

3 Salient Features of Membrane Reactors.

3.1 Applications of Membrane Reactors.

3.2 Advantages of the Membrane Reactors.

4 Hydrogen Production by Membrane Reactors.

4.1 Methane Steam Reforming.

4.2 Dry Reforming of Methane.

4.3 Partial Oxidation of Methane.

4.4 Water Gas Shift Reaction Performed in Membrane Reactors.

4.5 Outlines on Reforming Reactions of Renewable Sources in Membrane Reactors.

5 Other Examples of Membrane Reactors.

5.1 Zeolite Membrane Reactors.

5.2 Fluidised Bed Membrane Reactor.

5.3 Perovskite Membrane Reactors.

5.4 Hollow Fibre Membrane Reactors.

5.5 Catalytic Membrane Reactors.

5.6 Photocatalytic Membrane Reactors.

6 Membrane Bioreactor.

6.1 A Brief History of the MBR Technology Development.

6.2 Market Value and Drivers.

6.3 Commercially Available MF/UF Membranes for MBR.

6.4 Advantages of MBR over CAS.

6.5 Organics and Nutrients Removal in MBR.

6.6 Recalcitrant Industrial Wastewater Treatment by MBR.

6.7 Recent Advances in Membrane Bioreactors Design/Operation.

6.8 Development Challenges.

6.9 Future Research.

7 Conclusion.


1 Microporous Carbon Membranes (Miki Yoshimune and Kenji Haraya).

1.1 Introduction.

1.2 Transport Mechanisms in Carbon Membranes.

1.3 Methods for the Preparation of Microporous Carbon Membranes.

1.4 Membrane Modules.

1.5 Applications of Membranes in Membrane Reactor Processes.

1.6 Final Remarks and Conclusions.

2 Metallic Membranes by Wire Arc Spraying: Preparation, Characterisation and Applications (Sayed Siavash Madaeni and Parisa Daraei).

2.1 Introduction.

2.2 Thermal Spraying.

2.3 Preparation of Membranes.

2.4 Characterisation of Prepared Metallic Membrane.

2.5 Applications of Prepared Metallic Membrane.

2.6 Final Remarks and Conclusions.

3 Inorganic Hollow Fibre Membranes for Chemical Reaction (Benjamin F. K. Kingsbury, Zhentao Wu and K. Li).

3.1 Introduction.

3.2 Preparation of Inorganic Hollow Fibre Membranes.

3.3 Coating of Pd/Ag Membranes.

3.4 Catalyst Impregnation.

3.5 Application in Chemical Reaction.

3.6 Final Remarks and Conclusions.

4 Metallic Membranes Prepared by Cold Rolling and Diffusion Welding (Silvano Tosti).

4.1 Introduction.

4.2 Preparation Method.

4.3 Applications.

4.4 Conclusions.

5 Preparation and Synthesis of Mixed Ionic and Electronic Conducting Ceramic Membranes for Oxygen Permeation (Jianhua Tong and Ryan O'Hayre).

5.1 Introduction.

5.2 Preparation of MIEC Ceramic Powders.

5.3 Preparation of MIEC Membranes.

5.4 Example Applications of MIEC Membranes for the Partial Oxidation of Methane.

5.5 Final Remarks and Conclusions.

6 Nanostructured Perovskites for the Fabrication of Thin Ceramic Membranes and Related Phenomena (V.V. Zyryanov, A.P. Nemudry and V.A. Sadykov).

6.1 Introduction.

6.2 Support.

6.3 Selection of Ceramics with High Oxygen Mobility.

6.4 Synthesis of Ceramics with Required Ts and a High Oxygen Permeability.

6.5 Combination of Compatible Materials and Operations.

6.6 Design of Catalyst for Selective Reforming of Methane to Syngas.

6.7 Conclusion.

7 Compact Catalytic Membrane Reactors for Reforming Applications Based on an Integrated Sandwiched Catalyst Layer (Sreekumar Kurungot and Takeo Yamaguchi).

7.1 Introduction.

7.2 Experimental.

7.3 Results and Discussion.

7.4 Conclusion.

8 Zeolite Membrane Reactors (Carlos Tellez and Miguel Menendez).

8.1 Introduction.

8.2 Zeolite Membrane Preparation Outlines.

8.3 Detailed Preparation Method of a Zeolite Membrane.

8.4 Types of Zeolite Membrane Reactors.

8.5 Concluding Remarks.

9 Metal Supported and Laminated Pd-Based Membranes (Silvano Tosti, Angelo Basile and Fausto Gallucci).

9.1 Introduction.

9.2 Preparation Method.

9.3 Applications.

9.4 Conclusions.

10 PVD Techniques for Metallic Membrane Reactors (R. Checchetto, R.S. Brusa, A. Miotello and A. Basile).

10.1 Introduction.

10.2 Physical Vapour Deposition Techniques.

10.3 Pd-Based Metallic Membranes.

10.4 Conclusions.

11 Membranes Prepared via Electroless Plating (M. Broglia, P. Pinacci and A. Basile).

11.1 Introduction.

11.2 Description of the Electroless Plating Process.

11.3 Morphology of Palladium Deposits.

11.4 Pd-Alloy Preparation.

11.5 Membrane Performances and Integration in Membrane Reactors.

11.6 Conclusions.

12 Silica Membranes – Preparation by Chemical Vapour Deposition and Characteristics (J. Galuszka and T. Giddings).

12.1 Introduction.

12.2 Fundamentals of Chemical Vapour Deposition.

12.3 CVD Apparatus.

12.4 Silica H-Membranes Produced by CVD.

12.5 Silica Membrane Structure and Transport Mechanism.

12.6 Hydrothermal Stability of Silica Membranes.

12.7 Examples of Silica Membrane Application.

12.8 Conclusions.

13 Membranes Prepared via Molecular Layering Method (A.A. Malygin, A.A. Malkov, S.V. Mikhaylovskiy, S.D. Dubrovensky, N.L. Basov, M.M. Ermilova, N.V. Orekhova and G.F. Tereschenko).

13.1 Introduction.

13.2 Molecular Layering: Principles, Synthesis Possibilities and Fields of Application.

13.3 Optimisation of MR Structure and Catalytic Properties by the ML Method.

14 Solvated Metal Atoms in the Preparation of Catalytic Membranes (Emanuela Pitzalis, Claudio Evangelisti, Nicoletta Panziera, Angelo Basile, Gustavo Capannelli and Giovanni Vitulli).

14.1 Introduction.

14.2 Preparation of Catalytic Membranes.

14.3 Catalytic Exploitation.

14.4 Conclusions.

15 Electrophoretic Deposition for the Synthesis of Inorganic Membranes (F.J. Varela-Gandıa, A. Berenguer-Murcia, A. Linares-Solano, E. Morallon and D. Cazorla-Amoros).

15.1 Introduction.

15.2 State of the Art.

15.3 Experimental.

15.4 Discussion and Applications.

15.5 Conclusions.

16 Electrochemical Preparation of Nanoparticle Deposits: Application to Membranes and Catalysis (J. Arias-Pardilla, A. Berenguer-Murcia, D. Cazorla-Amoros and E. Morallon).

16.1 Introduction.

16.2 State of the Art.

16.3 Experimental.

16.4 Discussion and Applications.

16.5 Conclusions.

17 Electrochemical Preparation of Pd Seeds/Inorganic Multilayers on Structured Metallic Fibres (F. Basile, P. Benito, G. Fornasari, M. Monti, E. Scavetta, M. Tonelli and A. Vaccari).

17.1 Introduction.

17.2 Brief Review on Preparation Method.

17.3 Explanation of the Proposed Preparation Method.

17.4 Multilayer Preparation on Metal Substrates.

17.5 Final Remarks and Conclusion.

18 Membranes Prepared Via Spray Pyrolysis (Mingtao Li and Liejin Guo).

18.1 Introduction.

18.2 Spray Pyrolysis Material Preparation Method.

18.3 Selected Membranes Prepared Via Spray Pyrolysis Coating Method.

18.4 Catalyst Synthesis and Spread in PEMFC.

18.5 Remarks and Perspectives.

19 Preparation and Characterisation of Nanocrystalline and Quasicrystalline Alloys by Planar Flow Casting for Metal Membranes (J.W. Phair and M.A. Gibson).

19.1 Introduction.

19.2 Properties and Preparation of Nanocrystalline and Quasicrystalline Metals.

19.3 Preparation of Nanocrystalline and Quasicrystalline Metal Membranes by Planar Flow Casting.

19.4 Nanocrystalline and Quasicrystalline Metal Membranes for Hydrogen Separation.

19.5 Concluding Remarks.

20 Preparation and Characterisation of Amorphous Alloy Membranes (Shin-ichi Yamaura and Akihisa Inoue).

20.1 Introduction.

20.2 Brief Review of Preparation Methods.

20.3 Experimental Procedure.

20.4 Hydrogen Permeation of Ni-Nb-Zr Amorphous Alloy Membranes.

20.5 Hydrogen Production by Methanol Steam Reforming Using Melt-Spun Ni-Nb-Ta-Zr-Co Amorphous Alloy Membrane.

20.6 Final Remarks and Conclusions.

21 Membranes Prepared Via Phase Inversion (M.G. Buonomenna, S.-H. Choi, F. Galiano and E. Drioli).

21.1 Introduction.

21.2 Brief Review.

21.3 Explanation of the Phase Inversion Process.

21.4 Some Applications.

21.5 Conclusions.

22 Porous Flat Sheet, Hollow Fibre and Capsule Membranes by Phase Separation of Polymer Solutions (Mathias Ulbricht and Heru Susanto).

22.1 Introduction.

22.2 Porous Polymeric Membranes Classification.

22.3 Polymers for Porous Membranes.

22.4 Polymeric Membrane Preparation Via Phase Separation.

22.5 Industrial Manufacturing of Porous Polymeric Membranes.

22.6 Applications in Membrane Reactor Processes.

22.7 Conclusions and Outlook.

23 Porous Polymer Membranes by Manufacturing Technologies other than Phase Separation of Polymer Solutions (Mathias Ulbricht and Heru Susanto).

23.1 Introduction.

23.2 Technologies Based on Extrusion of Polymer Films.

23.3 Electrospinning of Porous Polymer Membranes.

23.4 In Situ Polymerisation of Porous Membranes.

23.5 Surface and Pore Functionalised Membranes.

23.6 Overview on Technical Porous Polymeric Membranes.

23.7 Applications in Membrane Reactor Processes.

23.8 Conclusions and Outlook.

24 Palladium-Loaded Polymeric Membranes for Hydrogenation in Catalytic Membrane Reactors (V.V. Volkov, I.V. Petrova, V.I. Lebedeva, V.I. Roldughin and G.F. Tereshchenko).

24.1 Introduction.

24.2 Synthesis and Hydrogenation Studies.

24.3 Characterisation of Palladium Nanoparticles in Catalytic Membranes.

24.4 Kinetic Studies.

24.5 Conclusions.

25 Membrane Prepared via Plasma Modification (Marek Bryjak and Irena Gancarz).

25.1 Introduction.

25.2 Membrane Treatment with Microwave Plasma.

25.3 Modes of Plasma Use.

25.4 Plasma of Nonpolymerisable Gas.

25.5 Plasma of Polymerisable Species.

25.6 Plasma-Induced Grafting.

26 Enzyme-Immobilised Polymer Membranes for Chemical Reactions (Tadashi Uragami).

26.1 Introduction.

26.2 Brief Review of the Preparation Method of Enzyme-Immobilised Polymer Membranes.

26.3 Preparation of Enzyme-Immobilised Polymer Membranes.

26.4 Applications of Enzyme-Immobilised Polymer Membranes as Membrane Reactors.

26.5 Final Remarks and Conclusions.

Final Remarks (Angelo Basile and Fausto Gallucci).

1 Introduction.

2 Membranes for Membrane Reactors.

2.1 Inorganic Membranes.

2.2 Organic Membranes.

3 Epilogue.