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Mercury Control: for Coal-Derived Gas Streams

E-Book

$144.99

Mercury Control: for Coal-Derived Gas Streams

Evan J. Granite (Editor), Henry W. Pennline (Editor), Constance Senior (Editor)

ISBN: 978-3-527-65880-0 September 2014 480 Pages

Description

This essential handbook and ready reference offers a detailed overview of the existing and currently researched technologies available for the control of mercury in coal-derived gas streams and that are viable for meeting the strict standards set by environmental protection agencies.
Written by an internationally acclaimed author team from government agencies, academia and industry, it details US, EU, Asia-Pacific and other international perspectives, regulations and guidelines.
Preface

PART I: Mercury in the Environment: Origin, Fate, and Regulation

MERCURY IN THE ENVIRONMENT
Introduction
Mercury as a Chemical Element
Direct Uses of Mercury
Atmospheric Transport and Deposition
Atmospheric Reactions and Lifetime
Mercury Biogeochemical Cycling

MERCURY AND HALOGENS IN COAL
Introduction
Mercury in U.S. Coals
Mercury in International Coals
Halogens in Coals
Summary

REGULATIONS
U.S. Regulations


INTERNATIONAL LEGISLATION AND TRENDS
Introduction
International Legislation
Regional and National Legislation
Summary

PART II: Mercury Measurement in Coal Gas

CONTINUOUS MERCURY MONITORS FOR FOSSIL FUEL-FIRED UTILITIES
Introduction
Components of a CMM
Installation and Verification Requirements
Major CMM Tests
CMM Vendors

BATCH METHODS FOR MERCURY MONITORING
Introduction
Wet Chemistry Batch Methods
Dry Batch Methods
Recommendations

PART III: Mercury Chemistry in Coal Utilization Systems and Air Pollution Control Devices

MERCURY BEHAVIOR IN COAL COMBUSTION SYSTEMS
Introduction
Coal Combustion Boilers
Mercury Chemistry in Combustion Systems
Air Pollution Control Devices on Utility and Industrial Boilers
Mercury Behavior in Coal-Fired Boilers
Summary

GASIFICATION SYSTEMS
Principles of Coal Gasification
Gasification Technologies Overview and Gasifier Descriptions
Gasification Applications and Downstream Gas Cleanup and Processing
Mercury Transformations and Fate
Hg Measurement in a Reducing Environment
Hg Control Technologies for Gasification
Hg and the MATS Rule for Gasifiers

MERCURY EMISSIONS CONTROL FOR THE CEMENT MANUFACTURING INDUSTRY
Introduction
Cement Manufacturing Process Description
State of Knowledge on the Source and Behavior of Mercury in the Cement Kiln System
Mercury Emissions Control Solutions in the Cement Industry
Conclusions

PART IV: Mercury Research Programs in the United States

DOE'S MERCURY CONTROL TECHNOLOGY RESEARCH, DEVELOPMENT, AND DEMONSTRATION PROGRAM
Introduction
Background
Summary

U.S. EPA RESEARCH PROGRAM
Introduction
Congressionally Mandated Studies
Control Technology from Work on Municipal Waste Combustors (MWCs)
Mercury Chemistry, Adsorption, and Sorbent Development
Coal Combustion Residues and By-Products
EPA SBIR Progra

THE ELECTRIC POWER RESEARCH INSTITUTE'S PROGRAM TO CONTROL MERCURY EMISSIONS FROM COAL-FIRED POWER PLANTS
Introduction
Co-Benefits of Installed Controls
Sorbent Injection
Boiler Chemical Addition
Novel Concepts for Mercury Control
Integration of Controls for Mercury with Controls for Other Air Pollutants
Summary

PART V: Mercury Control Processes

MERCURY CONTROL USING COMBUSTION MODIFICATION
Mercury Speciation in Coal-Fired Power Plants without Added Catalysts
Role of Unburned Carbon in Mercury Oxidation and Adsorption
Synergistic Relationship between UBC and Calcium in Flyash
Potential Combustion Modification Strategies to Mitigate Mercury Emissions
Effects of Combustion Modifications on Mercury Oxidation across SCR Catalysts

FUEL AND FLUE-GAS ADDITIVES
Background
Summary

CATALYSTS FOR THE OXIDATION OF MERCURY
Introduction
Hg Oxidation and Affecting Parameters
Conclusions and Future Research

MERCURY CAPTURE IN WET FLUE GAS DESULFURIZATION SYSTEMS
Introduction
Fate of Net Mercury Removed by Wet FGD Systems
Mercury Reemissions
Effects of Flue Gas Mercury Oxidation Technologies on FGD Capture of Mercury

INTRODUCTION TO CARBON SORBENTS FOR POLLUTION CONTROL
Carbon Materials
Carbon Activation
Carbon Particle Shapes and Forms
Activated Carbon Applications
Activated Carbon Properties in Emission Systems
Summary

ACTIVATED CARBON INJECTION
Introduction
The Activated Carbon Injection System
Factors Influencing the Effectiveness of Activated Carbon
Balance-of-Plant Impacts
Future Considerations

HALOGENATED CARBON SORBENTS
Introduction
Application of Activated Carbon for Mercury Control
Development of Halogenated Activated Carbon

CONCRETE-COMPATIBLE ACTIVATED CARBON
Introduction
Concrete-Compatibility Metrics
Production of Concrete-Compatible Products Including C-PAC (TM)
C-PAC (TM) Specification
Concrete Compatibility Test -
Field Fly Ash /
C-PAC (TM) Mixture

NOVEL CAPTURE TECHNOLOGIES: NON-CARBON SORBENTS AND PHOTOCHEMICAL OXIDATIONS
Introduction
Non-Carbon Sorbents
Photochemical Removal of Mercury from Flue Gas

SORBENTS FOR GASIFICATION PROCESSES
Introduction
Background
Warm/Humid Gas Temperature Mercury Sorbent Capture Techniques
Cold Gas Cleanup of Mercury
Summary

PART VI: Modeling of Mercury Chemistry in Air Pollution Control Devices

MERCURY-CARBON SURFACE CHEMISTRY
Nature of the Bonding of Mercury to the Carbon Surface
Effects of Acid Gases on Mercury Capacities on Carbon
Kinetic HCI Effect
Summary

ATOMISTIC-LEVEL MODELS
Introduction
Homogeneous Mercury Oxidation Kinetics
Heterogeneous Chemistry
Conclusions and Future Work

PREDICTING Hg EMISSIONS RATES WITH DEVICE-LEVEL MODELS AND REACTION MECHANISMS
Introduction and Scope
The Reaction System
Hg Transformations
Summary