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Mesoscopic Electronics in Solid State Nanostructures, 2nd, Completely Revised and Enlarged Edition

Mesoscopic Electronics in Solid State Nanostructures, 2nd, Completely Revised and Enlarged Edition

Thomas Heinzel

ISBN: 978-3-527-61892-7

Jul 2008

412 pages

Select type: E-Book



This text treats electronic transport in the regime where conventional textbook models are no longer applicable, including the effect of electronic phase coherence, energy quantization and single-electron charging. This second edition is completely updated and expanded, and now comprises new chapters on spin electronics and quantum information processing, transport in inhomogeneous magnetic fields, organic/molecular electronics, and applications of field effect transistors. The book also provides an overview of semiconductor processing technologies and experimental techniques. With a number of examples and problems with solutions, this is an ideal introduction for students and beginning researchers in the field.

"This book is a useful tool, too, for the experienced researcher to get a summary of recent developments in solid state nanostructures. I applaud the author for a marvellous contribution to the scientific community of mesoscopic electronics."
Prof. K. Ensslin, Solid State Physics Laboratory, ETH Zurich

1 Introduction.

1.1 Preliminary remarks.

1.2 Mesoscopic transport.

1.2.1 Ballistic transport.

1.2.2 The quantum Hall effect and Shubnikov–de Haas oscillations.

1.2.3 Size quantization.

1.2.4 Phase coherence.

1.2.5 Single-electron tunneling and quantum dots.

1.2.6 Superlattices.

1.2.7 Spintronics.

1.2.8 Samples, experimental techniques, and technological relevance.

2 An update of solid state physics.

2.1 Crystal structures.

2.2 Electronic energy bands.

2.3 Occupation of energy bands.

2.3.1 The electronic density of states.

2.3.2 Occupation probability and chemical potential.

2.3.3 Intrinsic carrier concentration.

2.3.4 Bloch waves and localized electrons.

2.4 Envelope wave functions.

2.5 Doping.

2.6 Diffusive transport and the Boltzmann equation.

2.6.1 The Boltzmann equation.

2.6.2 The conductance predicted by the simplified Boltzmann equation.

2.6.3 The magneto-resistivity tensor.

2.6.4 Diffusion currents.

2.7 Scattering mechanisms.

2.8 Screening.

3 Surfaces, interfaces, and layered devices.

3.1 Electronic surface states.

3.1.1 Surface states in one dimension.

3.1.2 Surfaces of three-dimensional crystals.

3.1.3 Band bending and Fermi level pinning.

3.2 Semiconductor–metal interfaces.

3.2.1 Band alignment and Schottky barriers. The Schottky model. The Schottky diode.

3.2.2 Ohmic contacts.

3.3 Semiconductor heterointerfaces.

3.4 Field effect transistors and quantum wells.

3.4.1 The silicon metal–oxide–semiconductor field effect transistor. The MOSFET and digital electronics.

3.4.2 The Ga[Al]As high electron mobility transistor.

3.4.3 Other types of layered devices. The AlSb–InAs–AlSb quantum well. Hole gas in Si–Si1−xGex–Si quantum wells. Organic FETs.

3.4.4 Quantum confined carriers in comparison to bulk carriers.

4 Experimental techniques.

4.1 Sample preparation.

4.1.1 Single crystal growth.

4.1.2 Growth of layered structures. Metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). Molecular beam epitaxy (MBE).

4.1.3 Lateral patterning. Defining patterns in resists. Direct writing methods. Etching.

4.1.4 Metallization.

4.1.5 Bonding.

4.2 Elements of cryogenics.

4.2.1 Properties of liquid helium. Some properties of pure 4He. Some properties of pure 3He. The 3He/4He mixture.

4.2.2 Helium cryostats. 4He cryostats. 3He cryostats. 3He/4He dilution refrigerators.

4.3 Electronic measurements on nanostructures.

4.3.1 Sample holders.

4.3.2 Application and detection of electronic signals. General considerations. Voltage and current sources. Signal detectors. Some important measurement setups.

5 Important quantities in mesoscopic transport.

5.1 Fermi wavelength.

5.2 Elastic scattering times and lengths.

5.3 Diffusion constant.

5.4 Dephasing time and phase coherence length.

5.5 Electron–electron scattering time.

5.6 Thermal length.

5.7 Localization length.

5.8 Interaction parameter (or gas parameter).

5.9 Magnetic length and magnetic time.

6 Magneto-transport properties of quantum films.

6.1 Landau quantization.

6.1.1 Two-dimensional electron gases in perpendicular magnetic fields.

6.1.2 The chemical potential in strong magnetic fields.

6.2 The quantum Hall effect.

6.2.1 Phenomenology.

6.2.2 Toward an explanation of the integer quantum Hall effect.

6.2.3 The quantum Hall effect and three dimensions.

6.3 Elementary analysis of Shubnikov–de Haas oscillations.

6.4 Some examples of magneto-transport experiments.

6.4.1 Quasi-two-dimensional electron gases.

6.4.2 Mapping of the probability density.

6.4.3 Displacement of the quantum Hall plateaux.

6.5 Parallel magnetic fields.

7 Quantum wires and quantum point contacts.

7.1 Diffusive quantum wires.

7.1.1 Basic properties.

7.1.2 Boundary scattering.

7.2 Ballistic quantum wires.

7.2.1 Phenomenology.

7.2.2 Conductance quantization in QPCs.

7.2.3 Magnetic field effects.

7.2.4 The “0.7 structure”.

7.2.5 Four-probe measurements on ballistic quantum wires.

7.3 The Landauer–Büttiker formalism.

7.3.1 Edge states.

7.3.2 Edge channels.

7.4 Further examples of quantum wires.

7.4.1 Conductance quantization in conventional metals.

7.4.2 Molecular wires. Carbon nanotubes.

7.5 Quantum point contact circuits.

7.5.1 Non-Ohmic behavior of QPCs in series.

7.5.2 QPCs in parallel.

7.6 Semiclassical limit: conductance of ballistic 2D systems.

7.7 Concluding remarks.

8 Electronic phase coherence.

8.1 The Aharonov–Bohm effect in mesoscopic conductors.

8.2 Weak localization.

8.3 Universal conductance fluctuations.

8.4 Phase coherence in ballistic 2DEGs.

8.5 Resonant tunneling and s-matrices.

9 Single-electron tunneling.

9.1 The principle of Coulomb blockade.

9.2 Basic single-electron tunneling circuits.

9.2.1 Coulomb blockade at the double barrier.

9.2.2 Current–voltage characteristics: The Coulomb staircase.

9.2.3 The SET transistor.

9.3 SET circuits with many islands: The single-electron pump.

10 Quantum dots.

10.1 Phenomenology of quantum dots.

10.2 The constant interaction model.

10.2.1 Quantum dots in intermediate magnetic fields.

10.2.2 Quantum rings.

10.3 Beyond the constant interaction model.

10.3.1 Hund’s rules in quantum dots.

10.3.2 Quantum dots in strong magnetic fields.

10.3.3 The distribution of nearest-neighbor spacings.

10.4 Shape of conductance resonances and I–V characteristics.

10.5 Other types of quantum dots.

10.5.1 Metal grains.

10.5.2 Molecular quantum dots.

10.6 Quantum dots and quantum computation.

11 Mesoscopic superlattices.

11.1 One-dimensional superlattices.

11.2 Two-dimensional superlattices.

11.2.1 Semiclassical effects.

11.2.2 Quantum effects.

12 Spintronics.

12.1 Ferromagnetic sandwich structures.

12.1.1 Tunneling magneto-resistance (TMR) and giant magneto-resistance (GMR).

12.1.2 Spin injection into a non-magnetic conductor.

12.2 The Datta–Das spin field effect transistor.

12.2.1 Concept of the Datta–Das transistor.

12.2.2 Spin injection in semiconductors. Interface tunnel barriers. Ferromagnetic semiconductors.

12.2.3 Gate-induced spin rotation: The Rashba effect.

12.2.4 Spin relaxation and spin dephasing.

A SI and cgs units.

B Correlation and convolution.

B.1 Fourier transformation.

B.2 Convolutions.

B.3 Correlation functions.

C Capacitance matrix and electrostatic energy.

D The transfer Hamiltonian.

E Solutions to selected exercises.



Komplett überarbeitete und erweiterte zweite Auflage dieses erfolgreichen Lehrbuches; umfaßt neue Kapitel zu den Themen Spin-Elektronik und Quanteninformationsverarbeitung, Transport in inhomogenen Magnetfeldern, organische/molekulare Elektronik, sowie Anwendungen von Feldeffekt-Transistoren.