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Metal Based Thin Films for Electronics

Metal Based Thin Films for Electronics

Klaus Wetzig (Editor), Claus M. Schneider (Editor)

ISBN: 978-3-527-60253-7 January 2005 388 Pages


This up-to-date handbook covers the main topics of preparation, characterization and properties of complex metal-based layer systems. The authors -- an outstanding group of researchers -- discuss advanced methods for structure, chemical and electronic state characterization with reference to the properties of thin functional layers, such as metallization and barrier layers for microelectronics, magnetoresistive layers for GMR and TMR, sensor and resistance layers. As such, the book addresses materials specialists in industry, especially in microelectronics, as well as scientists, and can also be recommended for advanced studies in materials science, analytics, surface and solid state science.
1 Introduction (Klaus Wetzig and Claus M. Schneider).

2 Thin Film Systems: Basic Aspects.

2.1 Interconnects for Microelectronics (Ralph Spolenak and Ehrenfried Zschech).

2.1.1 Introduction.

2.1.2 Metallization Layers.

2.1.3 Materials Science of Metallic Interconnects.

2.1.4 Function of Barrier and Nucleation Layers and Materials Selection.

2.2 Metallization Structures in Acoustoelectronics (Manfred Weihnacht).

2.2.1 Introduction.

2.2.2 Fundamentals of Surface Acoustic Waves.

2.2.3 Interdigital Transducers (IDTs).

2.2.4 Reflector Gratings.

2.2.5 Waveguides, Energy Trapping.

2.2.6 Multistrip Couplers.

2.3 Silicide Layers for Electronics (Joachim Schumann).

2.3.1 Introduction.

2.3.2 The Basic Chemical and Physical Properties.

2.3.3 Preparation of Silicides.

2.3.4 Silicides with Metallic Conductivity.

2.3.5 Semiconducting Silicides.

2.3.6 Heterogeneously Disordered Silicide Films.

2.4 Complex Layered Systems for Magnetoelectronics (Claus M. Schneider).

2.4.1 Introduction.

2.4.2 Magnetism: A Primer.

2.4.3 Magnetic Coupling Phenomena.

2.4.4 Electric Transport in Layered Magnetic Systems.

2.4.5 Functional Thin Film Systems.

2.5 Multilayer and Single-Surface Reflectors for X-Ray Optics (Hermann Mai and Stefan Braun).

2.5.1 Introduction.

2.5.2 Refraction and Reflection at Single Boundaries.

2.5.3 BRAGG Reflection at 1D Lattice Systems.

2.5.4 Multilayer Preparation.


3 Thin Film Preparation and Characterization Techniques.

3.1 Thin Film Preparation Methods (Christian Wenzel).

3.1.1 Introduction.

3.1.2 Physical Vapor Deposition.

3.1.3 Chemical Vapor Deposition.

3.1.4 Non-Vacuum Based Deposition.

3.1.5 Outlook.

3.2 Electron Microscopy and Diffraction (Klaus Wetzig and Jürgen Thomas).

3.2.1 Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) - Imaging.

3.2.2 TEM - Selected Area Electron Diffraction.

3.2.3 In situ-SEM Methods.

3.2.4 Electron Backscatter Diffraction.

3.3 X-Ray Scattering Techniques (Michael Hecker).

3.3.1 Wide Angle Diffraction.

3.3.2 Reflectometry.

3.3.3 Soft X-Rays and Magnetic Scattering.

3.4 Spectroscopic Techniques (Klaus Wetzig).

3.4.1 Element Distribution Analysis.

3.4.2 Element Depth Profile Analysis.

3.5 Stress Measurement Techniques (Winfried Brückner).

3.5.1 Stress and Strain.

3.5.2 Substrate Curvature.

3.5.3 Measurement Techniques.


4 Challenges for Thin Film Systems Characterization and Optimization.

4.1 Electromigration in Metallization Layers (Ralph Spolenak, et al.).

4.1.1 Fundamentals.

4.1.2 Methods for Quantitative Damage Analysis.

4.1.3 Al Interconnects.

4.1.4 Cu Interconnects.

4.2 Barrier and Nucleation Layers for Interconnects (Ehrenfried Zschech).

4.2.1 Introduction.

4.2.2 PVD Barrier Layers for Copper Interconnects.

4.2.3 Barrier/Seed Microstructure and Step Coverage.

4.2.4 New Barrier/Seed Concepts using CVD and ALD.

4.2.5 Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD).

4.3 Acoustomigration in Surface Acoustic Waves Structures (Siegfried Menzel and Klaus Wetzig).

4.3.1 General Remarks.

4.3.2 Acoustomigration Mechanism.

4.3.3 Metallization Concepts for Power SAW Structures.

4.3.4 Experimental Set-up.

4.3.5 Acoustomigration Experiments.

4.4 Thermal Stability of Magnetoresistive Layer Stacks (Claus M. Schneider and Jürgen Thomas).

4.4.1 Metallic Multilayers as GMR Model Systems.

4.4.2 Co/Cu Multilayers.

4.4.3 Ni80Fe20/Cu Multilayers.

4.5 Functional Magnetic Layers for Sensors and MRAMs (Hartmut Vinzelberg and Dieter Elefant).

4.5.1 Magnetic Multilayers: Layer Thickness Dependence of the GMR Parameters.

4.5.2 Spin Valves.

4.5.3 Magnetic Tunnel Junctions.

4.6 Multilayers for X-Ray Optical Purposes (Hermann Mai and Stefan Braun).

4.6.1 Multilayers as Reflectors for X-Rays.

4.6.2 Real Structure of nm-Multilayers.

4.6.3 High-Resolution Multilayers.

4.6.4 Multilayers with Uniform and Graded Period Thickness.

4.7 Functional Electric Layers (Joachim Schumann and Jürgen Thomas).

4.7.1 Resistance Layers.

4.7.2 Thermoelectic Thin Films.


5 Devices.

5.1 Devices Related Aspects for Si Based Electronics (Ehrenfried Zschech).

5.1.1 Interconnect Technology and Materials Trends for Memory and Logic Products.

5.1.2 Copper Inlaid Process: Process Integration and Materials Related Topics.

5.1.3 Wiring Hierarchy for Copper/Low-K on-Chip Interconnects.

5.1.4 New Global Interconnect Concepts.

5.2 SAW High Frequency Filters, Resonators and Delay Lines (Manfred Weihnacht).

5.2.1 Introduction.

5.2.2 Transversal Filters.

5.2.3 Resonators.

5.2.4 Filters with Spread Spectrum.

5.2.5 Delay Lines.

5.3 Sensor Devices (Christoph Treutler).

5.3.1 Introduction.

5.3.2 Requirements for Thin Films to be Used as Transducers.

5.3.3 Thin Film Strain Gauges for Pressure Sensors and Force Meters.

5.3.4 Thin Film Thermometer in a Micromachined Air-Mass Flow Meter for Automotive Application.

5.3.5 Magnetic Thin Films for Measuring Position, Angle, Rotational Speed and Torque.

5.3.6 Conclusions and Outlook.

5.4 X-Ray Optical Systems (Hermann Mai and Stefan Braun).

5.4.1 Basic Properties of the Combination of X-Ray Optical Elements.

5.4.2 X-Ray Astronomy.

5.4.3 X-Ray Microscopy.

5.4.4 Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography (EUVL).

5.4.5 X-Ray Reflectometry and Diffractometry.

5.5 Thermoelectric Sensors and Transducers (Joachim Schumann).

5.5.1 Introduction.

5.5.2 Thermoelectric Energy Conversion - Some Basic Considerations.

5.5.3 Thermoelectric Sensors.

5.5.4 Thermoelectric Transducers.

5.5.5 Outlook.


6 Outlook (Klaus Wetzig and Claus M. Schneider).


"...I can certainly agree with the final sentence of the book cover: A perfect introduction to the field-for professionals and students." (Angewandte Chemie, 2004, No. 11)

"Through its focus on practical aspects and its didactic approach, the book is designed especially for practitioners. It can be highly recommended to materials engineers, physicists or process engineers who work or plan to work in the still exciting field of micro electronics." (European Society of Thin Films)