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Metal Failures: Mechanisms, Analysis, Prevention, 2nd Edition

Metal Failures: Mechanisms, Analysis, Prevention, 2nd Edition

Arthur J. McEvily, Jirapong Kasivitamnuay

ISBN: 978-1-118-67102-3

Sep 2013

504 pages


One of the only texts available to cover not only how failure occurs but also examine methods developed to expose the reasons for failure, Metal Failures has long been considered the most definitive and authoritative resources in metallurgical failure analysis. Now in a completely revised edition, this Second Edition features updates of all chapters plus new coverage of elastic behavior and plastic deformation, localized necking, the phenomenological aspects of fatigue, fatigue crack propagation, alloys and coatings, tensors and tensor notations, and much more.

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Preface xv

1. Failure Analysis 1

I. Introduction 1

II. Examples of Case Studies Involving Structural Failures 6

III. Summary 25

References 25

Problems 26

2. Elements of Elastic Deformation 27

I. Introduction 27

II. Stress 27

III. Strain 32

IV. Elastic Constitutive Relationships 35

V. State of Stress Ahead of a Notch 44

VI. Summary 46

References 46

Appendix 2-1: Mohr Circle Equations for a Plane Problem 46

Appendix 2-2: Three-Dimensional Stress Analysis 49

Appendix 2-3: Stress Formulas Under Simple Loading Conditions 54

Problems 57

3. Elements of Plastic Deformation 59

I. Introduction 59

II. Theoretical Shear Strength 59

III. Dislocations 61

IV. Yield Criteria for Multiaxial Stress 68

V. State of Stress in the Plastic Zone Ahead of a Notch in Plane-Strain Deformation 70

VI. Summary 74

For Further Reading 75

Appendix 3-1: The von Mises Yield Criterion 75

Problems 76

4. Elements of Fracture Mechanics 80

I. Introduction 80

II. Griffith’s Analysis of the Critical Stress for Brittle Fracture 80

III. Alternative Derivation of the Griffith Equation 83

IV. Orowan-Irwin Modification of the Griffith Equation 84

V. Stress Intensity Factors 85

VI. The Three Loading Modes 88

VII. Determination of the Plastic Zone Size 88

VIII. Effect of Thickness on Fracture Toughness 89

IX. The R-Curve 91

X. Short Crack Limitation 92

XI. Case Studies 92

XII. The Plane-Strain Crack Arrest Fracture Toughness, KIa, of Ferritic Steels 95

XIII. Elastic-plastic Fracture Mechanics 96

XIV. Failure Assessment Diagrams 98

XV. Summary 101

References 101

Problems 102

5. Alloys and Coatings 105

I. Introduction 105

II. Alloying Elements 106

III. Periodic Table 107

IV. Phase Diagrams 108

V. Coatings 126

VI. Summary 130

References 130

Problems 130

6. Examination and Reporting Procedures 132

I. Introduction 132

II. Tools for Examinations in the Field 132

III. Preparation of Fracture Surfaces for Examination 133

IV. Visual Examination 133

V. Case Study: Failure of a Steering Column Component 134

VI. Optical Examination 135

VII. Case Study: Failure of a Helicopter Tail Rotor 136

VIII. The Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) 136

IX. The Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) 138

X. Replicas 142

XI. Spectrographic and Other Types of Chemical Analysis 143

XII. Case Study: Failure of a Zinc Die Casting 144

XIII. Specialized Analytical Techniques 145

XIV. Stress Measurement by X-Rays 146

XV. Case Study: Residual Stress in a Train Wheel 149

XVI. The Technical Report 150

XVII. Record Keeping and Testimony 151

XVIII. Summary 154

References 155

Problem 155

7. Brittle and Ductile Fractures 156

I. Introduction 156

II. Brittle Fracture 156

III. Some Examples of Brittle Fracture in Steel 159

IV. Ductile-Brittle Behavior of Steel 161

V. Case Study: The Nuclear Pressure Vessel Design Code 168

VI. Case Study: Examination of Samples from the Royal Mail Ship (RMS) Titanic 172

VII. Ductile Fracture 177

VIII. Ductile Tensile Failure, Necking 177

IX. Fractographic Features Associated with Ductile Rupture 183

X. Failure in Torsion 185

XI. Case Study: Failure of a Helicopter Bolt 185

XII. Summary 188

References 191

Problems 191

8. Thermal and Residual Stresses 196

I. Introduction 196

II. Thermal Stresses, Thermal Strain, and Thermal Shock 196

III. Residual Stresses Caused by Nonuniform Plastic Deformation 200

IV. Residual Stresses Due to Quenching 204

V. Residual Stress Toughening 207

VI. Residual Stresses Resulting from Carburizing, Nitriding, and Induction Hardening 207

VII. Residual Stresses Developed in Welding 209

VIII. Measurement of Residual Stresses 211

IX. Summary 211

References 211

Appendix 8-1: Case Study of a Fracture Due to Thermal Stress 212

Problems 213

9. Creep 216

I. Introduction 216

II. Background 216

III. Characteristics of Creep 217

IV. Creep Parameters 220

V. Creep Fracture Mechanisms 222

VI. Fracture Mechanism Maps 224

VII. Case Studies 225

VIII. Residual Life Assessment 230

IX. Stress Relaxation 232

X. Elastic Follow-up 233

XI. Summary 234

References 234

Problems 234

10. Fatigue 237

I. Introduction 237

II. Background 237

III. Design Considerations 240

IV. Mechanisms of Fatigue 246

V. Factors Affecting Fatigue Crack Initiation 254

VI. Factors Affecting Fatigue Crack Growth 257

VII. Analysis of the Rate of Fatigue Crack Propagation 261

VIII. Fatigue Failure Analysis 273

IX. Case Studies 276

X. Thermal-Mechanical Fatigue 285

XI. Cavitation 285

XII. Composite Materials 286

XIII. Summary 287

References 287

For Further Reading 290

Problems 290

11. Statistical Distributions 293

I. Introduction 293

II. Distribution Functions 293

III. The Normal Distribution 294

IV. Statistics of Fatigue; Statistical Distributions 296

V. The Weibull Distribution 298

VI. The Gumbel Distribution 302

VII. The Staircase Method 307

VIII. Summary 310

References 310

Appendix 11-1: Method of Linear Least Squares (C. F. Gauss, 1794) 311

Problems 314

12. Defects 316

I. Introduction 316

II. Weld Defects 316

III. Case Study: Welding Defect 321

IV. Casting Defects 328

V. Case Study: Corner Cracking during Continuous Casting 329

VI. Forming Defects 329

VII. Case Studies: Forging Defects 330

VIII. Case Study: Counterfeit Part 332

IX. The Use of the Wrong Alloys; Errors in Heat Treatment, etc.333

X. Summary 334

References 334

Problems 334

13. Environmental Effects 336

I. Introduction 336

II. Definitions 336

III. Fundamentals of Corrosion Processes 337

IV. Environmentally Assisted Cracking Processes 342

V. Case Studies 348

VI. Cracking in Oil and Gas Pipelines 350

VII. Crack Arrestors and Pipeline Reinforcement 352

VIII. Plating Problems 353

IX. Case Studies 353

X. Pitting Corrosion of Household Copper Tubing 356

XI. Problems with Hydrogen at Elevated Temperatures 356

XII. Hot Corrosion (Sulfidation) 358

XIII. Summary 358

References 358

Problems 359

14. Flaw Detection 360

I. Introduction 360

II. Inspectability 360

III. Visual Examination (VE) 364

IV. Penetrant Testing (PT) 364

V. Case Study: Sioux City DC-10 Aircraft 367

VI. Case Study: MD-88 Engine Failure 374

VII. Magnetic Particle Testing (MT) 375

VIII. Case Study: Failure of an Aircraft Crankshaft 378

IX. Eddy Current Testing (ET) 382

X. Case Study: Aloha Airlines 384

XI. Ultrasonic Testing (UT) 384

XII. Case Study: B747 389

XIII. Radiographic Testing (RT) 389

XIV. Acoustic Emission Testing (AET) 391

XV. Cost of Inspections 393

XVI. Summary 393

References 394

Problems 394

15. Wear 396

I. Wear 396

II. The Coefficient of Friction 397

III. The Archard Equation 398

IV. An Example of Adhesive Wear 399

V. Fretting Fatigue 399

VI. Case Study: Friction and Wear; Bushing Failure 403

VII. Roller Bearings 404

VIII. Case Study: Failure of a Railroad Car Axle 410

IX. Gear Failures 410

X. Summary 414

References 414

Problems 415

Concluding Remarks 417

Solutions to Problems 419

Name Index 469

Subject Index 473