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Metal Sustainability: Global Challenges, Consequences, and Prospects

Metal Sustainability: Global Challenges, Consequences, and Prospects

Reed M. Izatt (Editor)

ISBN: 978-1-119-00911-5

Aug 2016

552 pages

Description

The sustainable use of natural resources is an important global challenge, and improved metal sustainability is a crucial goal for the 21st century in order to conserve the supply of critical metals and mitigate the environmental and health issues resulting from unrecovered metals.

Metal Sustainability: Global Challenges, Consequences and Prospects discusses important topics and challenges associated with sustainability in metal life cycles, from mining ore to beneficiation processes, to product manufacture, to recovery from end-of-life materials, to environmental and health concerns resulting from generated waste. The broad perspective presented highlights the global interdependence of the many stages of metal life cycles. Economic issues are emphasized and relevant environmental, health, political, industrial and societal issues are discussed. The importance of applying green chemistry principles to metal sustainability is emphasized.

Topics covered include:
• Recycling and sustainable utilization of precious and specialty metals
• Formal and informal recycling from electronic and other  high-tech wastes
• Global management of electronic wastes
• Metal reuse and recycling in developing countries
• Effects of toxic and other metal releases on the environment and human health
• Effect on bacteria of toxic metal release
• Selective recovery of platinum group metals and rare earth metals
• Metal sustainability from a manufacturing perspective
• Economic perspectives on sustainability, mineral development, and metal life cycles
• Closing the Loop – Minerals Industry Issues

The aim of this book is to improve awareness of the increasingly important role metals play in our high-tech society, the need to conserve our metal supply throughout the metal life cycle, the importance of improved metal recycling, and the effects that unhindered metal loss can have on the environment and on human health.

List of Contributors xvii

Preface xxi

Acknowledgments xxiii

1 Recycling and Sustainable Utilization of Precious and Specialty Metals 1
Reed M. Izatt and Christian Hagelüken

1.1 Introduction 1

1.2 How did we come to this Situation? 4

1.3 Magnitude of the Waste Problem and Disposal of End-of-Life Products 7

1.4 Benefits Derived by the Global Community from Effective Recycling 8

1.5 Urban Mining 13

1.6 Technologies for Metal Separations and Recovery from EOL Wastes 16

1.7 Conclusions 19

References 21

2 Global Metal Reuse, and Formal and Informal Recycling from Electronic and Other High-Tech Wastes 23
Ian D. Williams

2.1 Introduction 23

2.2 Metal Sources 24

2.3 E-waste 28

2.4 Responses to the E-waste Problem 29

2.5 Reuse of Metals from High-tech Sources 31

2.6 Recycling of Metals from High-tech Sources 36

2.7 Conclusions 46

References 47

3 Global Management of Electronic Wastes: Challenges Facing Developing and Economy-in-Transition Countries 52
Oladele Osibanjo, Innocent C. Nnorom, Gilbert U. Adie, Mary B. Ogundiran, and Adebola A. Adeyi

3.1 Introduction 52

3.2 E-waste Composition 56

3.3 E-waste Generation 61

3.4 Problems with E-waste 63

3.5 E-waste Management Challenges Facing Developing Countries 65

3.6 Environmental and Health Impacts of E-Waste Management in Developing Countries 71

3.7 Solutions for Present and Future Challenges 73

3.8 Conclusions 77

References 78

4 Dynamics of Metal Reuse and Recycling in Informal Sector in Developing Countries 85
Mynepalli K. C. Sridhar and Taiwo B. Hammed

4.1 Introduction 85

4.2 Science of Metals 86

4.3 Technosphere, Demand and Mobility of Metals 89

4.4 Waste Dumpsites and Treasures of Heavy Metals 92

4.5 Scrap Metal and Consumer Markets 96

4.6 Export of Metal Scrap 99

4.7 E-waste Scavenging and End-of-Life Management 102

4.8 Scrap Metal Theft 105

4.9 Conclusions 106

References 106

5 Metal Sustainability from Global E-waste Management 109
Jinhui Li and Qingbin Song

5.1 Introduction 109

5.2 E-Waste Issues 109

5.3 E-Waste Management in China 112

5.4 Recycling of Metals Found in E-waste 119

5.5 Challenges and Efforts in Metal Sustainability in China 124

5.6 Summary 127

5.7 Acknowledgment 130

References 131

6 E-waste Recycling in China: Status Quo in 2015 134
Martin Streicher-Porte, Xinwen Chi, and Jianxin Yang

6.1 Introduction 134

6.2 Formal E-waste Collection and Recycling System in China 135

6.3 Informal E-waste Collection and Recycling 139

6.4 Conclusions 146

References 147

7 Metallurgical Recovery of Metals from Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE) in PRC 151
Xueyi Guo, Yongzhu Zhang, and Kaihua Xu

7.1 Introduction 151

7.2 Major Sources of E-Waste in China 152

7.3 Strategies and Regulations for WEEE Management and Treatment 153

7.4 Recycling and Processing of WEEE 159

7.5 Current Issues in WEEE Treatment in China 167

7.6 Conclusions 167

References 168

8 Metal Pollution and Metal Sustainability in China 169
Xiaoyun Jiang, Shengpei Su, and Jianfei Song

8.1 Introduction 169

8.2 Heavy Metal Pollution in China 170

8.3 Metal Sustainability in China 185

8.4 Metal Sustainability in China: Future Prospects 192

References 193

9 Mercury Mining in China and its Environmental and Health Impacts 200
Guangle Qiu, Ping Li, and Xinbin Feng

9.1 Introduction 200

9.2 Mercury Mines and Mining 201

9.3 Mercury in the Environment 202

9.4 Human Exposure and Health Risk Assessment 211

9.5 Summary 216

References 216

10 Effects of Non-Essential Metal Releases on the Environment and Human Health 221
Peter G.C. Campbell and Jürgen Gailer

10.1 Introduction 221

10.2 Metal Biogeochemical Cycles 222

10.3 Metal Environmental Toxicology 226

10.4 Case Study: Cadmium 229

10.5 Chronic Low-Level Exposure of Human Populations to Non-Essential Metals 232

References 243

11 How Bacteria are Affected by Toxic Metal Release 253
Mathew L. Frankel, Sean C. Booth, and Raymond J. Turner

11.1 Introduction to Bacteria in the Environment 253

11.2 Bacterial Interactions with Metals 255

11.3 Bacterial Response to Toxic Metals 257

11.4 How Are Metals Toxic to Bacteria? 261

11.5 Conclusions 265

References 265

12 Application of Molecular Recognition Technology to Green Chemistry: Analytical Determinations of Metals in Metallurgical, Environmental, Waste, and Radiochemical Samples 271
Yoshiaki Furusho, Ismail M.M. Rahman, Hiroshi Hasegawa, and Neil E. Izatt

12.1 Introduction 271

12.2 Technologies Used for Green Chemistry Trace Element Analysis 272

12.3 Elemental Analysis Instrumentation 273

12.4 Arsenic Speciation in Food Analysis 275

12.5 Metal Separation Resins and Their Application to Elemental Analyses 275

12.6 Green Chemistry Analytical Applications of Metal Separation Resins 279

12.7 Conclusions 288

References 290

13 Ionic Liquids for Sustainable Production of Actinides and Lanthanides 295
Paula Berton, Steven P. Kelley, and Robin D. Rogers

13.1 Introduction 296

13.2 f-Element Chemistry in Ionic Liquids 297

13.3 Applications of Ionic Liquids in f-Element Isolation 298

13.4 Summary 308

13.5 Acknowledgments 308

References 309

14 Selective Recovery of Platinum Group Metals and Rare Earth Metals from Complex Matrices Using a Green Chemistry/Molecular Recognition Technology Approach 317
Steven R. Izatt, James S. McKenzie, Ronald L. Bruening, Reed M. Izatt, Neil E. Izatt, and Krzysztof E. Krakowiak

14.1 Introduction 317

14.2 Molecular Recognition Technology 319

14.3 Strengths of Molecular Recognition Technology in Metal Separations 320

14.4 Applications of Molecular Recognition Technology to Separations Involving Platinum Group Metals 322

14.5 Applications of Molecular Recognition Technology to Separations Involving Rare Earth Elements 327

14.6 Comparison of Opex and Capex Costs for Molecular Recognition Technology and Solvent Extraction in Separation and Recovery of Rare Earth Metals 330

14.7 Conclusions 331

References 331

15 Refining and Recycling Technologies for Precious Metals 333
Tetsuya Ueda, Satoshi Ichiishi, Akihiko Okuda, and Koichi Matsutani

15.1 Introduction 333

15.2 Precious Metals Supply and Demand 334

15.3 Autocatalysts (Pt, Pd, Rh) 337

15.4 Electronic Components 344

15.5 Catalysts for Fuel Cell Application 349

15.6 Extraction and Refining Technologies for Precious Metals 355

15.7 Conclusions 359

References 360

16 The Precious Metals Industry: Global Challenges, Responses, and Prospects 361
Michael B. Mooiman, Kathryn C. Sole, and Nicholas Dinham

16.1 Introduction: The Precious Metals Industry 361

16.2 Current and Emerging Challenges 365

16.3 Responding to the Challenges: Mitigating Approaches and New Developments 380

16.4 Concluding Remarks: A Long-Term View of the Precious Metals Industry 388

References 389

17 Metal Sustainability from a Manufacturing Perspective: Initiatives at ASARCO LLC Amarillo Copper Refinery 397
Luis G. Navarro, Tracy Morris, Weldon Read, and Krishna Parameswaran

17.1 Introduction 397

17.2 General Overview of Sustainability from the Copper Industry Perspective 398

17.3 A Brief History of ASARCO LLC 399

17.4 How Refined Copper Is Produced 400

17.5 Introduction to Physical Chemistry of Copper Electrorefining 402

17.6 Electrolyte Purification 404

17.7 Recovery of Metals by Precipitation from Acidic Streams 409

17.8 Other Sustainable Development Efforts at ACR 419

17.9 Conclusions 421

References 422

18 Sustainability Initiatives at ASARCO LLC: A Mining Company Perspective 424
Dr. Krishna Parameswaran

18.1 Introduction 424

18.2 What is Sustainable Mining? 425

18.3 Exploration 427

18.4 Innovative Reclamation Methods 436

18.5 Reclamation of San Xavier Tailings Storage Facilities and Waste Rock Deposition Areas 441

18.6 Fostering Renewable Energy Projects on Disturbed Lands 442

18.7 Utilization of Mining Wastes 448

18.8 Conclusions 450

References 451

19 Recycling and Dissipation of Metals: Distribution of Elements in the Metal, Slag, and Gas Phases During Metallurgical Processing 453
Kenichi Nakajima, Osamu Takeda, Takahiro Miki, Kazuyo Matsubae, and Tetsuya Nagasaka

19.1 Introduction: Background, Motivation, and Objectives 453

19.2 Method: Chemical Thermodynamic Analysis of the Distribution of Elements in the Smelting Process 454

19.3 Element Distribution Tendencies in Recycling Metals 456

19.4 Metallurgical Knowledge for Recycling: Element Radar Chart for Metallurgical Processing 463

References 465

20 Economic Perspectives on Sustainability, Mineral Development, and Metal Life Cycles 467
Roderick G. Eggert

20.1 Introduction 467

20.2 The Many Faces of Sustainability 468

20.3 Economic Concepts 469

20.4 Implications for Mine Development 471

20.5 Implications for Regional and National Mineral Development 473

20.6 Implications for Metal Life Cycles, Material Efficiency, and the Circular Economy 476

20.7 What to Do? 481

Acknowledgments 482

References 483

21 Closing the Loop: Minerals Industry Issues 485
William J. Rankin and Nawshad Haque

21.1 Introduction 485

21.2 The Waste Hierarchy 486

21.3 Reducing and Eliminating Wastes 487

21.3.1 Cleaner Production 490

21.3.2 Wastes as Co-products 490

21.3.3 Process Re-engineering 491

21.3.4 Closing the Loop 492

21.3.5 Stewardship 494

21.4 Tools for Closing the Loop 497

21.4.1 A Case Study: Steelmaking Using Biomass 497

21.4.1.1 Economic Benefits 499

21.4.1.2 Environmental Benefits 501

21.4.1.3 Summary 501

21.5 Closing the Loop: Barriers and Drivers 503

References 505

Index 508