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Metallurgy and Corrosion Control in Oil and Gas Production, 2nd Edition



Metallurgy and Corrosion Control in Oil and Gas Production, 2nd Edition

Robert Heidersbach

ISBN: 978-1-119-25205-4 October 2018 368 Pages

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Details the proper methods to assess, prevent, and reduce corrosion in the oil industry using today's most advanced technologies 

This book discusses upstream operations, with an emphasis on production, and pipelines, which are closely tied to upstream operations. It also examines protective coatings, alloy selection, chemical treatments, and cathodic protection—the main means of corrosion control. The strength and hardness levels of metals is also discussed, as this affects the resistance of metals to hydrogen embrittlement, a major concern for high-strength steels and some other alloys. It is intended for use by personnel with limited backgrounds in chemistry, metallurgy, and corrosion and will give them a general understanding of how and why corrosion occurs and the practical approaches to how the effects of corrosion can be mitigated.

Metallurgy and Corrosion Control in Oil and Gas Production, Second Edition updates the original chapters while including a new case studies chapter. Beginning with an introduction to oilfield metallurgy and corrosion control, the book provides in-depth coverage of the field with chapters on: chemistry of corrosion; corrosive environments; materials; forms of corrosion; corrosion control; inspection, monitoring, and testing; and oilfield equipment.

  • Covers all aspects of upstream oil and gas production from downhole drilling to pipelines and tanker terminal operations
  • Offers an introduction to corrosion for entry-level corrosion control specialists
  • Contains detailed photographs to illustrate descriptions in the text

Metallurgy and Corrosion Control in Oil and Gas Production, Second Edition is an excellent book for engineers and related professionals in the oil and gas production industries. It will also be an asset to the entry-level corrosion control professional who may have a theoretical background in metallurgy, chemistry, or a related field, but who needs to understand the practical limitations of large-scale industrial operations associated with oil and gas production.

Preface xiii

1 Introduction to Oilfield Metallurgy and Corrosion Control 1

Costs, 1

Safety, 2

Environmental Damage, 2

Corrosion Control, 3

References, 3

2 Chemistry of Corrosion 5

Electrochemistry of Corrosion, 5

Electrochemical Reactions, 5

Electrolyte Conductivity, 6

Faraday’s Law of Electrolysis, 6

Electrode Potentials and Current, 6

Corrosion Rate Expressions, 10

pH, 10

Passivity, 11

Potential‐pH (Pourbaix) Diagrams, 11

Summary, 12

References, 12

3 Corrosive Environments 15

External Environments, 16

Atmospheric Corrosion, 17

Water as a Corrosive Environment, 18

Soils as Corrosive Environments, 20

Corrosion Under Insulation, 21

Internal Environments, 24

Crude Oil, 24

Natural Gas, 25

Oxygen, 26

Carbon Dioxide, 26

Hydrogen Sulfide, 29

Organic Acids, 32

Scale, 33

Microbially Influenced Corrosion (MIC), 36

Mercury, 41

Hydrates, 41

Fluid Flow Effects on Corrosion, 41

Summary, 41

References, 42

4 Materials 47

Metallurgy Fundamentals, 47

Crystal Structure, 47

Material Defects, Inclusions, and Precipitates, 48

Strengthening Methods, 50

Mechanical Properties, 51

Forming Methods, 60

Castings, 60

Wrought Metal Products, 60

Welding, 61

Clad Metals, 65

Additive Manufacturing, 65

Materials Specifications, 65

API – The American Petroleum Institute, 66

AISI – The American Iron and Steel Institute, 66

ASTM International (Formerly the American Society for Testing and Materials), 66

ASME – The American Society of Mechanical Engineers, 67

SAE International (Formerly the Society of Automotive Engineers), 67

UNS – The Universal Numbering System, 67

NACE – The Corrosion Society (Formerly the National Association of Corrosion Engineers), 68

Other Organizations, 68

Use of Materials Specifications, 68

Carbon Steels, Cast Irons, and Low‐Alloy Steels, 69

Classifications of Carbon Steels, 71

Alloying Elements and Their Influence on Properties of Steel, 72

Strengthening Methods for Carbon Steels, 74

Quench and Tempered (Q&T) Steels, 75

Carbon Equivalents and Weldability, 76

Cleanliness of Steel, 76

Cast Irons, 76

Corrosion‐Resistant Alloys (CRAs), 77

Iron–Nickel Alloys, 77

Stainless Steels, 78

Nickel‐based Alloys, 83

Cobalt‐based Alloys, 84

Titanium Alloys, 84

Copper Alloys, 86

Aluminum Alloys, 89

Additional Considerations with CRAs, 91

Polymers, Elastomers, and Composites, 93

Materials Selection Guidelines, 97

References, 97

5 Forms of Corrosion 101

Introduction, 101

General Corrosion, 102

Galvanic Corrosion, 104

Galvanic Coupling of Two or More Metals, 104

Area Ratio, 105

Metallurgically Induced Galvanic Corrosion, 107

Environmentally Induced Galvanic Corrosion, 109

Polarity Reversal, 111

Conductivity of the Electrolyte, 111

Control of Galvanic Corrosion, 111

Pitting Corrosion, 112

Occluded Cell Corrosion, 113

Pitting Corrosion Geometry and Stress Concentration, 114

Pitting Initiation, 115

Pitting Resistance Equivalent Numbers (PRENs), 115

Pitting Statistics, 116

Prevention of Pitting Corrosion, 117

Crevice Corrosion, 117

Corrosion Under Pipe Supports (CUPS), 119

Pack Rust, 120

Crevice Corrosion Mechanisms, 121

Alloy Selection, 121

Filiform Corrosion, 122

Intergranular Corrosion, 123

Stainless Steels, 123

Corrosion Parallel to Forming Directions, 124

Aluminum, 124

Other Alloys, 125

Dealloying, 125

Mechanism, 125

Selective Phase Attack, 126

Susceptible Alloys, 126

Control, 126

Erosion Corrosion, 127

Mechanism, 127

Velocity Effects and ANSI/API RP14E, 128

Materials, 130

Cavitation, 130

Areas of Concern, 131

Erosion and Erosion‐corrosion Control, 133

Environmentally Assisted Cracking, 134

Stress Corrosion Cracking (SCC), 135

Hydrogen Embrittlement and H2S‐related Cracking, 139

Liquid Metal Embrittlement (LME), 143

Corrosion Fatigue, 143

Other Forms of Corrosion Important to Oilfield Operations, 145

Oxygen Attack, 145

Sweet Corrosion, 145

Sour Corrosion, 145

Mesa Corrosion, 145

Top‐of‐Line (TOL) Corrosion, 145

Channeling Corrosion, 146

Grooving Corrosion: Selective Seam Corrosion, 148

Wireline Corrosion, 148

Additional Forms of Corrosion Found in Oil and Gas Operations, 148

Additional Comments, 152

References, 153

6 Corrosion Control 159

Protective Coatings, 159

Paint Components, 159

Coating Systems, 160

Corrosion Protection by Paint Films, 160

Desirable Properties of Protective Coating Systems, 161

Developments in Coatings Technology, 162

Surface Preparation, 162

Purposes of Various Coatings, 166

Generic Binder Classifications, 167

Coatings Suitable for Various Service Environments or Applications, 169

Coatings Inspection, 169

Areas of Concern and Inspection Concentration, 174

Linings, Wraps, Greases, and Waxes, 176

Coatings Failures, 180

Metallic Coatings, 189

Useful Publications, 192

Water Treatment and Corrosion Inhibition, 192

Oil Production Techniques, 193

Water Analysis, 193

Gas Stripping and Vacuum Deaeration, 194

Corrosion Inhibitors, 194

Cathodic Protection, 199

How Cathodic Protection Works, 201

Types of Cathodic Protection, 203

Cathodic Protection Criteria, 214

Inspection and Monitoring, 216

Cathodic Protection Design, 220

Additional Topics Related to Cathodic Protection, 224

Summary of Cathodic Protection, 227

Standards for Cathodic Protection, 227

References, 228

7 Inspection, Monitoring, and Testing 233

Inspection, 235

Visual Inspection (VT), 235

Penetrant Testing (PT), 236

Magnetic Particle Inspection (MT), 237

Ultrasonic Inspection (UT), 237

Radiography (RT), 238

Eddy Current Inspection, 240

Magnetic Flux Leakage (MFL) Inspection, 241

Positive Material Identification (PMI), 242

Thermography, 242

Additional Remarks About Inspection, 243

Monitoring, 244

Monitoring Probes, 244

Electrochemical Corrosion Rate Monitoring Techniques, 250

Hydrogen Probes, 253

Sand Monitoring, 254

Fluid Analysis, 255

Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (NORM), 257

Additional Comments on Monitoring, 258

Testing, 258

Hydrostatic Testing, 258

Laboratory and Field Trial Testing, 260

References, 262

8 Oilfield Equipment 265

Drilling and Exploration, 265

Drill Pipe, 265

Tool Joints, 268

Blowout Preventers (BOPs), 268

Wells and Wellhead Equipment, 269

History of Production, 270

Downhole Corrosive Environments, 271

Annular Spaces, 275

Types of Wells, 275

Tubing, Casing, and Capillary Tubing, 277

Corrosion Inhibitors for Tubing and Casing in Production Wells, 280

Internally Coated Tubing for Oilfield Wells, 283

Wireline, 285

Coiled Tubing, 285

Material and Corrosion Concerns with Artificial Lift Systems, 286

Facilities and Surface Equipment, 291

Piping, 291

Storage Tanks, 293

Heat Exchangers, 297

Other Equipment, 301

Bolting, Studs, and Fasteners, 301

Problems with Bolted Connections, 306

International Bolting Standards, 307

Flares, 312

Corrosion Under Insulation, 312

Pipelines and Flowlines, 319

Pipeline Problems and Failures, 319

Forms of Corrosion Important in Pipelines and Flowlines, 321

Repairs and Derating Due to Corrosion, 323

Casings for Road and Railway Crossings, 323

Pipeline and Flowline Materials, 324

Pipeline Hydrotesting, 326

Seawater Injection Pipelines/Flowlines, 327

External Corrosion of Pipelines, 327

Internal Corrosion of Pipelines, 330

Inspection, Condition Assessment, and Testing, 332

Offshore and Marine Applications, 336

Offshore Pipelines, 336

Offshore Structures, 337

References, 342