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Methods in Educational Research: From Theory to Practice, 2nd Edition



Methods in Educational Research: From Theory to Practice, 2nd Edition

Marguerite G. Lodico, Dean T. Spaulding, Katherine H. Voegtle

ISBN: 978-0-470-43680-6 May 2010 Jossey-Bass 560 Pages

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Methods in Educational Research

Methods in Educational Research is designed to prepare students for the real world of educational research. It focuses on scientifically-based methods, school accountability, and the professional demands of the twenty-first century, empowering researchers to take an active role in conducting research in their classrooms, districts, and the greater educational community. Like the first edition, this edition helps students, educators, and researchers develop a broad and deep understanding of research methodologies. It includes substantial new content on the impact of No Child Left Behind legislation, school reform, quantitative and qualitative methodologies, logic modeling, action research, and other areas. Special features to assist the teaching and learning processes include vignettes illustrating research tied to practice, suggested readings at the end of each chapter, and discussion questions to reinforce chapter content.

Praise for the Previous Edition

"A new attempt to make this subject more relevant and appealing to students. Most striking is how useful this book is because it is really grounded in educational research. It is very well written and quite relevant for educational researchers or for the student hoping to become one." -PsycCRITIQUES/American Psychological Association

"I applaud the authors for their attempt to cover a wide range of material. The straightforward language of the book helps make the material understandable for readers." -Journal of MultiDisciplinary Evaluation

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Boxes, Exhibits, Figures, and Tables ix

Preface xix

Acknowledgments xxiii

The Authors xxv

1 Introduction to Educational Research 1

Chapter Objectives 1

Educational Accountability and Educational Research 2

Conducting Educational Research 10

Philosophical Frameworks for Educational Research 13

Research Ethics 17

2 Types of Educational Research Designs and Related Major Concepts 25

Chapter Objectives 25

Types of Approaches Used in Educational Research 26

3 Descriptive Statistics 47

Chapter Objectives 47

Characteristics of Data 48

Summarizing Data Using Descriptive Statistics 50

4 Educational Measurement: Archival Data and Standardized Instruments 81

Chapter Objectives 81

Measurement in Education 82

Evaluating the Quality of Standardized Instruments: Reliability and Validity 95

Issues in Finding and Using Standardized Instruments 104

5 Qualitative Measures and Procedures 115

Chapter Objectives 115

Characteristics of Qualitative Measurement 116

Sampling in Qualitative Research 138

6 Qualitative Research 145

Chapter Objectives 145

Research Vignette 146

Understanding Qualitative Research 146

Steps in Designing Qualitative Research 165

Evaluating Narrative Inquiry and Phenomenological Research 171

7 Organization and Analysis of Qualitative Data 185

Chapter Objectives 185

Analysis of Qualitative Data 186

Steps in Analyzing Qualitative Data 186

8 Descriptive Survey Research: Quantitative Research 205

Chapter Objectives 205

Research Vignette 206

Characteristics of Descriptive Survey Research 206

Steps in Conducting Descriptive Survey Research 209

Evaluating Descriptive Survey Research 231

9 Experimental Research 237

Chapter Objectives 237

Research Vignette 238

Understanding Experimental Research 238

Steps in Planning and Conducting Experimental Research 240

Threats to Experimental Validity 252

Single-Subject Research Designs 264

10 Nonexperimental Approaches: Causal-Comparative and Correlational Research 277

Chapter Objectives 277

Research Vignette 278

Causal-Comparative Research 278

Correlational Research 284

Multiple Regression Studies 301

11 Inferential Statistics 307

Chapter Objectives 307

Beyond Descriptive Statistics: Inferential Statistics 308

Steps in Analyzing Data Using Inferential Tests 317

Designs with More than One Independent or Dependent Variable 320

12 Action Research 325

Chapter Objectives 325

Research Vignette 326

Understanding Action Research 327

Steps in Conducting Action Research 336

Data Sources for Action Research 345

Evaluation of Action Research 362

13 Program Evaluation in Education 377

Chapter Objectives 377

Research Vignette 378

What Is Program Evaluation? 379

Types, Approaches, and Models of Program Evaluation 387

Steps in Designing Program Evaluation 391

Program Evaluation Data and Critiquing Evaluation Reports 392

Training and Careers in Program Evaluation 394

14 Identifying and Researching a Topic 399

Chapter Objectives 399

Getting Started 400

Identify a Research Topic 400

Refine Your Topic as You Search 403

Search the Literature 406

Identify and Summarize Key Information from Articles 421

When Do I Have Enough? 422

15 The Research Proposal 427

Chapter Objectives 427

Preparing a Research Proposal 428

References 445

Appendix A 453

Appendix B 487

Index 517