Skip to main content

Metrology and Standardization for Nanotechnology: Protocols and Industrial Innovations

Metrology and Standardization for Nanotechnology: Protocols and Industrial Innovations

Elisabeth Mansfield (Editor), Debra L. Kaiser (Editor), Daisuke Fujita (Editor), Marcel Van de Voorde (Editor)

ISBN: 978-3-527-34039-2

Apr 2017

626 pages

In Stock

$245.00

Description

For the promotion of global trading and the reduction of potential risks, the role of international standardization of nanotechnologies has become more and more important. This book gives an overview of the current status of nanotechnology including the importance of metrology and characterization at the nanoscale, international standardization of nanotechnology, and industrial innovation of nano-enabled products.
First the field of nanometrology, nanomaterial standardization and nanomaterial innovation is introduced. Second, major concepts in analytical measurements are given in order to provide a basis for the reliable and reproducible characterization of nanomaterials. The role of standards organizations are presented and finally, an overview of risk management and the commercial impact of metrology and standardization for industrial innovations.

Foreword XXVII

Preface XXIX

1 Introduction: An Overview of Nanotechnolgy and Nanomaterial Standardization and Opportunities and Challenges 1
Ajit Jillavenkatesa

1.1 Standards and Standardization 1

1.2 Nanotechnology Standardization 2

1.3 Nanomaterial Standardization 8

1.4 Challenges 9

1.5 Opportunities 12

1.6 Summary 13

Part One Nanotechnology Basics: Definitions, Synthesis, and Properties 15

2 Nanotechnology Definitions at ISO and ASTM International: Origin, Usage, and Relationship to Nomenclature and Regulatory and Metrology Activities 17
Frederick C. Klaessig

2.1 Introduction 17

2.2 Context based on Size, Property, and Regulatory Framework 19

2.3 Nano-objects: Particles, Shapes, and Shape Descriptors 24

2.4 Collections of Nano-Objects 27

2.5 Layers and Coatings as Surface Chemistry 31

2.6 National Definitions 32

2.7 Nomenclature 34

2.8 Terminology as a Controlled Vocabulary and Nomenclature as Knowledge Organization 42

2.9 Concluding Remarks 44

Acknowledgments 44

References 45

3 Engineered Nanomaterials: a Discussion of the Major Categories of Nanomaterials 49
Marcel Van de Voorde, Maciej Tulinski, and Mieczyslaw Jurczyk

3.1 Description of Nanotechnology and Nanomaterials 49

3.2 Nanomaterials’ Morphologies 49

3.3 Types of Nanomaterials 53

3.4 Properties of Nanomaterials 58

3.5 Applications of Nanomaterials and Nanocomposites 61

3.6 Conclusions and Outlook 69

References 70

4 Nanomaterials Synthesis Methods 75
Maciej Tulinski and Mieczyslaw Jurczyk

4.1 Classification 75

4.2 Physical Methods 78

4.3 Chemical Methods 82

4.4 Mechanical Methods 87

4.5 Biological Synthesis 94

4.6 Summary 95

References 96

5 Physicochemical Properties of Engineered Nanomaterials 99
Linda J. Johnston, Elisabeth Mansfield, and Gregory J. Smallwood

5.1 Introduction 99

5.2 Composition 100

5.3 Size and Size Distribution 102

5.4 Morphology and Shape 105

5.5 Aggregation and Agglomeration 107

5.6 Surface Properties 108

5.7 Conclusions and Outlook 110

References 111

6 Biological Properties of Engineered Nanomaterials 115
Dong Hyun Jo, Jin Gyeong Son, Jin Hyoung Kim, Tae Geol Lee, and Jeong Hun Kim

6.1 Introduction 115

6.2 Biological Properties of ENMs 116

6.3 Metrology and Standardization of ENMs in the Context of Biological Properties 123

6.4 Conclusions 125

References 125

Part Two Metrology for Engineered Nanomaterials 129

7 Characterization of Nanomaterials 131
Alan F. Rawle

7.1 Introduction 131

7.2 Size 133

7.3 Shape 136

7.4 Surface 139

7.5 Solubility 142

7.6 International Standards and Standardization 144

7.7 Summary 146

Acknowledgments 146

References 147

8 Principal Metrics and Instrumentation for Characterization of Engineered Nanomaterials 151
Aleksandr B. Stefaniak

8.1 Introduction 151

8.2 ENM Metrics and Instrumentation for Characterization 154

8.3 Summary 169

List of Abbreviations 169

Disclaimer 170

References 170

9 Analytical Measurements of Nanoparticles in Challenging and Complex Environments 175
Bryant C. Nelson and Vytas Reipa

9.1 Introduction 175

9.2 Nanoparticle Measurements in Soils and Sediments 175

9.3 Nanoparticle Measurements in Air 177

9.4 Nanoparticle Measurements in Cosmetics 179

9.5 Nanoparticle Measurements in Aquatic Environments 180

9.6 Nanoparticle Measurements in Foods 182

9.7 Nanoparticle Measurements in Biological Matrices 184

9.8 Key Challenges for Characterizing Nanoparticle Sizes and Shapes in Biological Matrices 184

9.9 Key Challenges in the Quantitative Measurement of Nanoparticles in Biological Matrices 186

9.10 Key Challenges for Determining Nanoparticle Dose/Concentration in Biological Matrices 187

9.11 Key Challenges in Measuring Nanoparticle Agglomeration in Biological Matrices 188

9.12 Notable Instrumentation for Characterizing Nanoparticles in Biological Matrices 188

9.13 Concluding Remarks 190

NIST Disclaimer 191

List of Acronyms 191

References 192

10 Metrology for the Dimensional Parameter Study of Nanoparticles 197
N. Feltin, S. Ducourtieux, and A. Delvallée

10.1 Introduction 197

10.2 Traceability of the Dimensional Measurements at the Nanoscale 198

10.3 Measuring the Nanoparticle Size 201

10.4 Conclusions 209

References 209

11 Analytical Nanoscopic Techniques: Nanoscale Properties 211
Daisuke Fujita

11.1 Introduction 211

11.2 Historical Overview of Analytical Nanoscopic Techniques 212

11.3 Scanning Probe Microscopy 214

11.4 Electron Microscopy 219

11.5 Emerging Nanocharacterization Techniques 222

11.6 Summary 227

References 227

12 Tribological Testing and Standardization at the Micro- and Nanoscale 229
Esteban Broitman

12.1 Introduction 229

12.2 A Brief History of Tribology 230

12.3 Scale Effects in Tribology Testing 232

12.4 Experimental Methods for Tribology Characterization 234

12.5 International Standardization in Micro- and Nanotechnology 243

Acknowledgments 246

References 246

13 Stochastic Aspects of Sizing Nanoparticles 249
Krzysztof J. Kurzydlowski

13.1 Introduction 249

References 257

Part Three Nanotechnology Standards 259

14 ISO Technical Committee 229 Nanotechnologies 261
Heather Benko

14.1 Introduction 261

14.2 ISO/TC 229 Nanotechnologies 262

References 267

15 Standards from ASTM International Technical Committee E56 on Nanotechnology 269
Debra L. Kaiser and Kathleen Chalfin

15.1 Introduction 269

15.2 ASTM International 270

15.3 ASTM Technical Committee E56 271

15.4 ASTM E56 Standards 273

15.5 ASTM E56 Future Technical Focus Areas 276

15.6 Summary 277

References 277

16 International Electrotechnical Commission: Nanotechnology Standards 279
Michael Leibowitz

16.1 International Electrotechnical Commission 279

16.2 IEC Technical Committee 113 280

16.3 Summary, Conclusions, and Future Focus Areas 286

References 286

17 Standardization of Nanomaterials: Methods and Protocols 289
Dr. Jean-Marc Aublant

17.1 Genesis of CEN/TC 352 289

17.2 Nanostrand: a European Road Map of Standards Needs for Nanotechnologies 290

17.3 Mandate for a European Standardization Program for Nanotechnologies 291

17.4 Mandate for Developing European Standards for Nanotechnologies 293

17.5 Publication and Ongoing Work of CEN/TC 352 294

References 297

18 Nanomaterial Recommendations from the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry 299
Elisabeth Mansfield, Richard Hartshorn, and Andrew Atkinson

18.1 IUPAC Organization 299

18.2 The Future of IUPAC in Nanotechnology 302

18.3 Summary, Conclusions, and Future Focus Areas 304

References 305

19 Reference Nanomaterials to Improve the Reliability of Nanoscale Measurements 307
G. Roebben, V.A. Hackley, and H. Emons

19.1 Introduction 307

19.2 Reference Materials for Quality Control 308

19.3 Reference Materials for Instrument Calibration 310

19.4 Reference Materials for Method Validation 312

19.4.3 Example 3: Within-Laboratory Method Validation 315

19.5 Outlook/Future Trends 317

19.6 Conclusions 320

Acknowledgment 320

Disclaimer 320

References 321

20 Versailles Project on Advanced Materials and Standards (VAMAS) and its Role in Nanotechnology Standardization 323
Stephen Freiman

20.1 Background 323

20.2 How Does VAMAS Help? 324

20.3 The VAMAS Role in Nanotechnology 325

20.4 Summary 326

Part Four Risk-Related Aspects of Engineered Nanomaterials 327

21 Categorization of Engineered Nanomaterials For Regulatory Decision-Making 329
Maria J. Doa

21.1 Introduction 329

21.2 Chemical Categories 330

21.3 Adoption of a Similar Approach for Nanomaterials 331

21.4 Categorization in a North American Regulatory Context 334

21.5 Physicochemical Properties 339

21.6 Conclusion 340

References 340

22 Nano-Exposure Science: How Does Exposure to Engineered Nanomaterials Happen? 343
Christie M. Sayes and Grace V. Aquino

22.1 Introduction 343

22.2 The Stages of a Product’s Lifecycle 343

22.3 Product Life Evaluation 344

22.4 Product Lifecycle versus Product Value Chain 344

22.5 Exposure at Each Stage of the ENM Product Lifecycle 348

22.6 Environmental Release of Engineered Nanomaterials from Common Nano-enabled Products 354

22.7 Conclusions 356

References 357

23 Nanotoxicology: Role of Physical and Chemical Characterization and Related In Vitro, In Vivo, and In Silico Methods 363
Pavan M. V. Raja, Ghislaine Lacroix, Jacques-Aurélien Sergent, Frédéric Bois, Andrew R. Barron, Enrico Monbelli, and Dan Elgrabli

23.1 Importance of Toxicological Studies – Interaction of Nanoparticles and Living Species 363

23.2 Regulatory Aspects Applied to Nanomaterials 367

23.3 Essential Chemical and Physical Characterization for Nanotoxicological Studies 371

23.4 Methods in Nanotoxicology 372

23.5 Conclusions 376

References 376

24 Minimizing Risk: An Overview of Risk Assessment and Risk Management of Nanomaterials 381
Jo Anne Shatkin, Kimberly Ong, and James Ede

24.1 How Risk Assessment and Risk Management Can Minimize Risk 381

24.2 Risk Assessment of Nanomaterials 383

24.3 Risk Management of Nanomaterials 395

24.4 Conclusions 402

References 403

Part Five Nanotechnology-based Products, Applications, and Industry 409

25 Nanoenabled Products: Categories, Manufacture, and Applications 411
Wendel Wohlleben, Christian Punckt, Jasmin Aghassi-Hagmann, Friedrich Siebers, Frank Menzel, Daniel Esken, Claus-Peter Drexel, Henning Zoz, Hans Ulrich Benz, Andreas Weier, Martin Hitzler, Andrea Iris Schäfer, Luisa De Cola, and Eko Adi Prasetyanto

25.1 General Overview 411

25.2 Case Studies: Composite Systems 426

25.3 Case Studies: Nanoporous Systems 440

25.4 Case Studies: Particle-Based Systems 447

25.5 Summary and Outlook 457

References 460

26 Application of Nanomaterials to Industry: How Are Nanomaterials Used and What Drives Future Applications? 465
Denis Koltsov and Iwona Koltsov

26.1 Introduction 465

26.2 Nanomaterial Application Types 466

26.3 Sources of Innovation for Nanomaterials 472

26.4 Barriers for Implementation 473

26.5 Applications 476

26.6 Conclusions 481

References 481

27 Ethics and Nanomaterials Industrial Production 485
Daniel Bernard

27.1 Current Situation 487

27.2 Strategy 491

27.3 Safety 493

27.4 Data Generation and Expertise Implementation 496

27.5 Transparency 498

27.6 Conclusions 499

List of Acronyms 502

References 503

28 Nanomaterials for Energy Applications 505
K. E. Hurst, J. M. Luther, C. Ban, and S. T. Christensen

28.1 Introduction 505

28.2 Photovoltaics 505

28.3 Solid-State Lighting 507

28.4 Fuel Cell 509

28.5 Biomass 510

28.6 Electrochemical Batteries 511

28.7 Electrochemical Capacitors 512

28.8 Hydrogen Storage 513

28.9 Conclusions 515

References 515

29 The Importance of Metrology and Standardization of Nanomaterials for Food Industry and Regulatory Authorities in Europe 519
Reinhilde Schoonjans and Qasim Chaudhry

29.1 Introduction 519

29.2 Current Trends in the Use of Engineered Nanomaterials in Agri/Food/Feed Products 520

29.3 Nanometrology in Agri/Food/Feed 522

29.4 Regulatory Aspects Relating to Standardization and Safe Use of Nanomaterials 527

29.5 Safety Data for Regulatory Authorization in Europe 529

29.6 Current Status of Regultory Assessments in Europe 530

29.7 Concluding Remarks 533

References 534

30 Magnetic Properties and Applications of Engineered Nanomaterials 539
Cindi L. Dennis

30.1 Introduction 539

30.2 Fundamentals of Nanomagnetism 539

30.3 Applications of Nanomagnets 547

30.4 Summary 557

References 557

31 Nanomaterials in Textiles 559
Keana Scott, Vicenç Pomar-Portillo, and Socorro Vázquez-Campos

31.1 Introduction 559

31.2 Manufacturing Processes 560

31.3 Quality Assurance/Quality Control 564

31.4 Applications 566

31.5 Conclusions 569

References 569

Index 573