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Micro-and Nanoelectromechanical Biosensors

Micro-and Nanoelectromechanical Biosensors

Liviu Nicu, Thierry Leïchlé

ISBN: 978-1-118-76084-0

Jan 2014, Wiley-ISTE

144 pages

$64.99

Description

Most books dedicated to the issues of bio-sensing are organized by the well-known scheme of a biosensor. In this book, the authors have deliberately decided to break away from the conventional way of treating biosensing research by uniquely addressing biomolecule immobilization methods on a solid surface, fluidics issues and biosensing-related transduction techniques, rather than focusing simply on the biosensor. The aim is to provide a contemporary snapshot of the biosensing landscape without neglecting the seminal references or products where needed, following the downscaling (from the micro- to the nanoscale) of biosensors and their respective best known applications. To conclude, a brief overview of the most popularized nanodevices applied to biology is given, before comparing biosensor criteria in terms of targeted applications.

INTRODUCTION vii

CHAPTER 1. TRANSDUCTION TECHNIQUES FOR MINIATURIZED BIOSENSORS 1

1.1. Definition of bioMEMS 1

1.2. Transduction techniques 2

1.2.1. Optical transduction 2

1.2.2. Electro (chemical) transduction 6

1.2.3. Mechanical transduction 10

1.3. MEMS transducers 17

1.4. One specific application of MEMS biosensors: detection of pathogen agents 20

1.5. Bibliography 25

CHAPTER 2. BIORECEPTORS AND GRAFTING METHODS  35

2.1. Types of bioreceptor 35

2.1.1. Catalytic receptors 36

2.1.2. Affinity receptors 37

2.1.3. Nucleic acid-based receptors 40

2.1.4. Molecularly imprinted polymers 41

2.2. Immobilization strategies 43

2.2.1. Adsorption and antifouling strategies 44

2.2.2. Entrapment methods 49

2.2.3. Covalent coupling 51

2.2.4. Other capture systems 54

2.2.5. Immobilization strategies: summary 56

2.3. Conclusion 57

2.4. Bibliography 57

CHAPTER 3. PATTERNING TECHNIQUES FOR THE BIOFUNCTIONALIZATION OF MEMS 65

3.1. What is surface patterning? 65

3.2. Direct biopatterning in liquid phase 66

3.2.1. Ink delivery by non-contact methods 67

3.2.2. Ink delivery by contact methods 71

3.3. Replication of patterns 80

3.3.1. Photolithography 81

3.3.2. Light-induced patterning strategies 81

3.3.3. Microcontact printing 82

3.3.4. In-flux functionalization 83

3.4. Conclusions 84

3.5. Bibliography 85

CHAPTER 4. FROM MEMS TO NEMS BIOSENSORS 93

4.1. Importance of downscaling 93

4.2. Challenges faced by NEMS for biosensing applications 95

4.2.1. Issues related to nanomechanical transducers 97

4.2.2. Issues related to the functionalization of NEMS 99

4.2.3. On the importance of packaging and sample preparation 103

4.3. Economic considerations 106

4.4. Bibliography 107

CHAPTER 5. COMPARING PERFORMANCES OF BIOSENSORS: IMPOSSIBLE MISSION? 113

5.1. Bibliography 117

INDEX 119