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Microbes for Climate Resilient Agriculture

Microbes for Climate Resilient Agriculture

Prem Lal Kashyap (Editor), Alok Kumar Srivastava (Editor), Shree Prakash Tiwari (Editor), Sudheer Kumar (Editor)

ISBN: 978-1-119-27592-3

Mar 2018, Wiley-Blackwell

376 pages

In Stock

$199.95

Description

A comprehensive, edited volume pulling together research on manipulation of the crop microbiome for climate resilient agriculture

Microbes for Climate Resilient Agriculture provides a unique collection of data and a holistic view of the subject with quantitative assessment of how agricultural systems will be transformed in coming decades using hidden treasure of microbes. Authored by leaders in the field and edited to ensure conciseness and clarity, it covers a broad range of agriculturally important crops, discusses the impact of climate change on crops, and examines biotechnologically and environmentally relevant microbes. The book encapsulates the understanding of microbial mediated stress management at field level, and will serve as a springboard for novel research findings and new applications in the field.

Chapter coverage includes: the role of the phytomicrobiome in maintaining biofuel crop production in a changing climate; the impact of agriculture on soil microbial community composition and diversity in southeast Asia; climate change impact on plant diseases; microalgae; photosynthetic microorganisms and bioenergy prospects; amelioration of abiotic stresses in plants through multi-faceted beneficial microorganisms; role of methylotrophic bacteria in climate change mitigation; conservation agriculture for climate change resilience; archaeal community structure; mycorrhiza-helping plants to navigate environmental stresses; endophytic microorganisms; bacillus thuringiensis; and microbial nanotechnology for climate resilient agriculture.

  • Clear and succinct chapters contributed and edited by leaders in the field
  • Covers microbes' beneficial and detrimental roles in the microbiome, as well as the functions they perform under stress
  • Discusses the crop microbiome, nutrient cycling microbes, endophytes, mycorrhizae, and various pests and diseases, and their roles in sustainable farming
  • Places research in larger context of climate change's effect on global agriculture
Microbes for Climate Resilient Agriculture is an important text for scientists and researchers studying microbiology, biotechnology, environmental biology, agronomy, plant physiology, and plant protection.

ABOUT THE EDITORS xv

LIST OF CONTRIBUTORS xix

PREFACE xxiii

1 THE ROLE OF THE PHYTOMICROBIOME IN MAINTAINING BIOFUEL CROP PRODUCTION IN A CHANGING CLIMATE 1
Gayathri Ilangumaran, John R. Lamont and Donald L. Smith

1.1 General Background on Climate Change 1

1.2 More Extreme Weather More Often – More Crop Stress 2

1.3 Biofuel Crops – Alternative to Fossil Fuels 3

1.4 Avoiding Competition with Food Production 4

1.5 Fuel Crops Grown on Marginal Lands – Constraints 4

1.6 Plant Response to Stresses Related to Climate Change and Marginal Lands 6

1.7 Sustaining Biofuel Crops Under Stressful Environments 7

1.8 The Phytomicrobiome and Climate Change Conditions 8

1.9 The Phytomicrobiome and Abiotic Plant Stress 8

1.10 Mechanisms of Stress Tolerance in the Phytomicrobiome 9

1.11 Phytomicrobiome Engineering 11

1.12 The Phytomicrobiome in Biofuel Plants 12

1.13 Role of the Phytomicrobiome in Phytoremediation by Biofuel Plants 13

References 14

2 THE IMPACT OF AGRICULTURE ON SOIL MICROBIAL COMMUNITY COMPOSITION AND DIVERSITY IN SOUTHEAST ASIA 25
Binu M. Tripathi, Itumeleng Moroenyane and Jonathan M. Adams

2.1 Introduction 25

2.2 The Extent of Soil Microbial Diversity and their Status in Tropical Soils 27

2.3 The Composition and Function of Microbial Communities in Tropical Soils of Southeast Asia 29

2.3.1 Unique Soil Microbial Communities of Southeast Asia and their Potential Drivers 29

2.4 The Impact of Land use Change on Soil Microbial Community Structure and Diversity 31

2.5 The Impact of Land use Change on Soil Functional Gene Diversity 34

2.6 Conclusions 35

References 35

3 CLIMATE CHANGE IMPACT ON PLANT DISEASES: OPINION, TRENDS AND MITIGATION STRATEGIES 41
Sachin Gupta, Deepika Sharma and Moni Gupta

3.1 Introduction 41

3.2 Climate Change and Agriculture 42

3.3 Interactions among Global Change Factors 43

3.4 Pathogen–Host Plant Relationship under Changed Scenario 44

3.5 Effect of Climate Change on Plant Diseases 44

3.5.1 Temperature 46

3.5.2 Drought 48

3.5.3 Rainfall 48

3.5.4 CO2 Concentration 48

3.6 Adaptation and Mitigation Strategies for Climate Change 49

3.6.1 Adaptation Strategies 49

3.6.2 Mitigation Strategies 50

3.7 Conclusion and Future Directions 51

References 51

4 MICROALGAE: POTENTIAL AGENTS FOR CARBON DIOXIDE MITIGATION 57
Preeti Singh, Rahul Kunwar Singh and Dhananjay Kumar

4.1 Introduction 57

4.2 Carbon Capture and Storage 60

4.3 Carbon Capture by Photosynthesis 60

4.4 CO2 Mitigation by Microalgal Culture 60

4.4.1 The Open Pond System 61

4.4.2 The Closed Photobioreactor System 62

4.4.3 The Environmentally Controlled System 62

4.5 Advantages 62

4.5.1 Integration of Microalgal Culture in Waste Water Treatment 62

4.5.2 Ability of Microalgae to Tolerate the Greenhouse Gases 62

4.6 Carbon Concentrating Mechanism of Microalgae 65

4.7 CO2 Sequestration by Microalgae 65

4.8 Cost Effectiveness 66

4.8.1 Biofertilizer 66

4.8.2 Biofuel 67

4.8.3 Other Products 67

4.9 Conclusion 68

References 68

5 PHOTOSYNTHETIC MICROORGANISMS AND BIOENERGY PROSPECTS: CHALLENGES AND POTENTIAL 75
Balkrishna Tiwari, Sindhunath Chakraborty, Ekta Verma and Arun Kumar Mishra

5.1 Introduction 75

5.2 Photosynthetic Microbes 78

5.3 Anoxigenic Photosynthetic Microbes 79

5.3.1 Green Photosynthetic Bacteria 79

5.3.2 Purple Bacteria 82

5.3.3 Heliobacteria 84

5.3.4 Prospects of Anoxigenic Photosynthetic Microbes in Bioenergy Production 86

5.4 Oxygenic Photosynthetic Microbes 87

5.4.1 Cyanobacteria 89

5.4.2 Microalgae 93

5.5 Biomass Production and Challenges 95

5.6 Some Important Issues Associated with Biofuel Production 96

5.6.1 Use of Water 96

5.6.2 Nutrients and Competition with Crops 96

5.6.3 Minimizing Algae Death from Biotic and Abiotic Factors 96

5.6.4 Competition with Petroleum in Terms of Price 97

5.7 Conclusions 97

Acknowledgements 98

References 98

6 AMELIORATION OF ABIOTIC STRESSES IN PLANTS THROUGH MULTI‐FACETED BENEFICIAL MICROORGANISMS 105
Usha Chakraborty, Bishwanath Chakraborty and Jayanwita Sarkar

6.1 Introduction 105

6.2 Temperature Stress Alleviation 107

6.2.1 Alleviation by Bacteria 107

6.2.2 Alleviation by Fungi 110

6.3 Water and Salinity Stress Alleviation 112

6.3.1 Alleviation by Bacteria 112

6.3.2 Alleviation by Fungi 118

6.4 Alleviation of Heavy Metal Toxicity 124

6.5 Conclusions 131

References 132

7 ROLE OF METHYLOTROPHIC BACTERIA IN CLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION 149
Manish Kumar, Raghvendra Saxena, Rajesh Singh Tomar, Pankaj K. Rai and Diby Paul

7.1 Introduction 149

7.2 Methylotrophic Bacteria and their Role in Agriculture 151

7.3 Volatile Organic Carbon Mitigation and Methylotrophs 152

7.4 Carbon Cycling and Climate Change 152

7.5 Methylotrophs Mitigating Methane 154

7.6 Methylotrophs Mitigating Methane in Paddy Fields 158

7.7 Conclusions 160

Acknowledgements 160

References 160

8 CONSERVATION AGRICULTURE FOR CLIMATE CHANGE RESILIENCE: A MICROBIOLOGICAL PERSPECTIVE 165
Raj Pal Meena and Ankita Jha

8.1 Introduction 165

8.2 The Effect of Climate Change on Agricultural Production 169

8.3 Concepts and Principles of Conservation Agriculture 173

8.4 The Ecological Role of Microbial Biodiversity in Agro‐Ecosystems 177

8.5 Role of Microbial Population in C‐Sequestration, N, P Cycle 179

8.6 Restoring Diversity in Large‐Scale Monocultures 180

8.7 Enhancing Crops vis‐a‐vis Microbial Biodiversity to Reduce Vulnerability 181

8.8 Conclusions 183

References 183

9 ARCHAEAL COMMUNITY STRUCTURE: RESILIENCE TO CLIMATE CHANGE 191
M. Thomas, K.K. Pal and R. Dey

9.1 Introduction 191

9.2 Possible Role of Archaea in Agricultural Sustainability 192

9.3 Ecology and Phylogeny of Domain Archaea 193

9.4 Archaeal Contribution to Global Climate Change 194

9.4.1 Archaeal Response to Increased Temperatures 195

9.4.2 Archaeal Response to Biogeochemical Cycles 196

9.5 Archaeal Mechanisms of Adaptation with Respect to Abiotic Changes 200

9.6 Conclusions 200

References 201

10 MYCORRHIZA – HELPING PLANTS TO NAVIGATE ENVIRONMENTAL STRESSES 205
Raghvendra Pratap Singh, Geetanjali Manchanda, Mian Nabeel Anwar, Jun Jie Zhang and Yue Zhang Li

10.1 Introduction 205

10.2 Arbuscular Mycorrhizae 207

10.3 Elevated CO2 Levels 209

10.4 High Temperature 211

10.5 Salinity 214

10.6 Conclusions 219

References 220

11 ENDOPHYTIC MICROORGANISMS: FUTURE TOOLS FOR CLIMATE RESILIENT AGRICULTURE 235
R. Dey, K.K. Pal, M. Thomas, D.N. Sherathia, V.B. Mandaliya, R.A. Bhadania, M.B. Patel, P. Maida, D.H. Mehta, B.D. Nawade and S.V. Patel

11.1 Introduction 235

11.1.1 Climate Change – Impact and Need for Adaptation 236

11.2 Endophytes and Climate Resilience 239

11.2.1 High Temperature Stress 239

11.2.2 Low Temperature Stress 240

11.2.3 Moisture‐Deficit Stress 240

11.2.4 Salinity Stress 242

11.2.5 Waterlogging Stress 244

11.3 Endophytes and Biotic Stress 245

11.3.1 Plant Diseases 245

11.3.2 Nematode Infestation 247

11.3.3 Insect Pests 247

11.4 Conclusions 247

References 248

12 BACILLUS THURINGIENSIS: GENETIC ENGINEERING FOR INSECT PEST MANAGEMENT 255
Gothandapani Sellamuthu, Prabhakaran Narayanasamy and Jasdeep Chatrath Padaria

12.1 Introduction 255

12.2 Biology of Bacillus Thuringiensis 257

12.2.1 Natural Occurrence of Bacillus thuringiensis 257

12.2.2 Classification of Bt Toxins 258

12.2.3 Mode of Action 260

12.3 Biotechnological Approaches of Microbial Genes for Insect Pest Management 261

12.3.1 Microbial Genes and Gene Pyramiding 261

12.3.2 Alternative Insecticidal Genes 262

12.3.3 Gene Pyramiding 262

12.4 Methods for Development of Transgenic Crops 263

12.4.1 Direct Gene Transfer 264

12.4.2 Indirect Gene Transfer 266

12.5 Field Evaluation and Commercially Available Insecticidal Crops 267

12.5.1 Environmental Safety 269

12.5.2 Ecological Balance and Food Safety 270

12.6 Insecticide Resistance 270

12.7 Conclusions 271

References 271

13 MICROBIAL NANOTECHNOLOGY FOR CLIMATE RESILIENT AGRICULTURE 279
Prem Lal Kashyap, Pallavi Rai, Raj Kumar, Shikha Sharma, Poonam Jasrotia, Alok Kumar Srivastava and Sudheer Kumar

13.1 Introduction 279

13.2 Microbe Mediated Fabrication of Nanoparticles 281

13.2.1 Bacteria 281

13.2.2 Fungi 286

13.2.3 Algae 287

13.2.4 Viruses 292

13.2.5 Actinomycetes 293

13.3 Nanomaterials for Biotic and Abiotic Stress Management 295

13.3.1 Biotic Stress Management 295

13.3.2 Abiotic Stress Management 306

13.4 Nano‐Fertilizers for Balanced Crop Nutrition 314

13.5 Conclusion and Future Directions 315

References 316

INDEX 345