Skip to main content

Microgrids: Architectures and Control

Nikos Hatziargyriou (Editor)

ISBN: 978-1-118-72067-7 December 2013 Wiley-IEEE Press 344 Pages


Microgrids are the most innovative area in the electric power industry today. Future microgrids could exist as energy-balanced cells within existing power distribution grids or stand-alone power networks within small communities.

A definitive presentation on all aspects of microgrids, this text examines the operation of microgrids – their control concepts and advanced architectures including multi-microgrids. It takes a logical approach to overview the purpose and the technical aspects of microgrids, discussing the social, economic and environmental benefits to power system operation. The book also presents microgrid design and control issues, including protection and explaining how to implement centralized and decentralized control strategies.

Key features:

  • original, state-of-the-art research material written by internationally respected contributors 
  • unique case studies demonstrating success stories from real-world pilot sites from Europe, the Americas, Japan and China
  • examines market and regulatory settings for microgrids, and provides evaluation results under standard test conditions
  • a look to the future – technical solutions to maximize the value of distributed energy along with the principles and criteria for developing commercial and regulatory frameworks for microgrids

Offering broad yet balanced coverage, this volume is an entry point to this very topical area of power delivery for electric power engineers familiar with medium and low voltage distribution systems, utility operators in microgrids, power systems researchers and academics. It is also a useful reference for system planners and operators, manufacturers and network operators, government regulators, and postgraduate power systems students.


Thomas Degner
Aris Dimeas
Alfred Engler
Nuno Gil
Asier Gil de Muro
Guillermo Jiménez-Estévez
George Kariniotakis
George Korres
André Madureira
Meiqin Mao
Chris Marnay
Jose Miguel Yarza
Satoshi Morozumi
Alexander Oudalov
Frank van Overbeeke
Rodrigo Palma Behnke
Joao Abel Pecas Lopes
Fernanda Resende
John Romankiewicz
Christine Schwaegerl
Nikos Soultanis
Liang Tao
Antonis Tsikalakis

Related Resources

Foreword xiii

Preface xv

List of Contributors xix

1 The Microgrids Concept 1
Christine Schwaegerl and Liang Tao

1.1 Introduction 1

1.2 The Microgrid Concept as a Means to Integrate Distributed Generation 3

1.3 Clarification of the Microgrid Concept 4

1.4 Operation and Control of Microgrids 8

1.5 Market Models for Microgrids 12

1.6 Status Quo and Outlook of Microgrid Applications 22

2 Microgrids Control Issues 25
Aris Dimeas, Antonis Tsikalakis, George Kariniotakis and George Korres

2.1 Introduction 25

2.2 Control Functions 25

2.3 The Role of Information and Communication Technology 27

2.4 Microgrid Control Architecture 28

2.5 Centralized and Decentralized Control 32

2.6 Forecasting 35

2.7 Centralized Control 40

2.8 Decentralized Control 51

2.9 State Estimation 72

2.10 Conclusions 76

3 Intelligent Local Controllers 81
Thomas Degner, Nikos Soultani, Alfred Engler and Asier Gil de Muro

3.1 Introduction 81

3.2 Inverter Control Issues in the Formation of Microgrids 82

3.4 Implications of Line Parameters on Frequency and Voltage Droop Concepts 92

3.5 Development and Evaluation of Innovative Local Controls to Improve Stability 98

3.6 Conclusions 115

4 Microgrid Protection 117
Alexander Oudalov, Thomas Degner, Frank van Overbeeke and Jose Miguel Yarza

4.1 Introduction 117

4.2 Challenges for Microgrid Protection 118

4.3 Adaptive Protection for Microgrids 125

4.4 Fault Current Source for Effective Protection in Islanded Operation 146

4.5 Fault Current Limitation in Microgrids 151

4.6 Conclusions 154

5 Operation of Multi-Microgrids 165
Joao Abel PeScas Lopes, Andre Madureira, Nuno Gil and Fernanda Resende

5.1 Introduction 165

5.2 Multi-Microgrid Control and Management Architecture 167

5.3 Coordinated Voltage/var Support 169

5.4 Coordinated Frequency Control 178

5.5 Emergency Functions (Black Start) 186

5.6 Dynamic Equivalents 192

5.7 Conclusions 202

6 Pilot Sites: Success Stories and Learnt Lessons 206
George Kariniotakis, Aris Dimeas and Frank Van Overbeeke (Sections 6.1, 6.2)

6.1 Introduction 206

6.2 Overview of Microgrid Projects in Europe 206

6.3 Overview of Microgrid Projects in the USA 231
John Romankiewicz, Chris Marnay (Section 6.3)

6.4 Overview of Japanese Microgrid Projects 249
Satoshi Morozumi (Section 6.4)

6.5 Overview of Microgrid Projects in China 262
Meiqin Mao (Section 6.5)

6.6 An Off-Grid Microgrid in Chile 270
Rodrigo Palma Behnke and Guillermo Jimenez-Estevez (Section 6.6)

7 Quantification of Technical, Economic, Environmental and Social Benefits of Microgrid Operation 275
Christine Schwaegerl and Liang Tao

7.1 Introduction and Overview of Potential Microgrid Benefits 275

7.2 Setup of Benefit Quantification Study 278

7.3 Quantification of Microgrids Benefits under Standard Test Conditions 285

7.4 Impact of External Market Prices and Pricing Policies 296

7.5 Impact of Microgrid Operation Strategy 303

7.6 Extension to European Scale 307

7.7 Conclusions 310

References 313

Index 315