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Micromechanics and MEMS: Classic and Seminal Papers to 1990



Micromechanics and MEMS: Classic and Seminal Papers to 1990

William S. Trimmer (Editor)

ISBN: 978-0-780-31085-8 January 1997 Wiley-IEEE Press 720 Pages

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Micromechanics is a rich, diverse field that draws on many different disciplines and has potential applications in medicine, electronic interfaces to physical phenomena, military, industrial controls, consumer products, airplanes, microsatellites, and much more. Until now, papers written during the earlier stages of this field have been difficult to retrieve. The papers included in this volume have been thoughtfully arranged by topic, and are accompanied by section introductions written by renowned expert William Trimmer.
Acknowledgments and Dedication.


Comments on Writing an Article.


There's Plenty of Room at the Bottom (R. Feynman).

Infinitesimal Machinery (R. Feynman).

The Resonant Gate Transistor (H. Nathanson, et al.).

Silicon Micromechanical Devices (J. Angell, et al.).

Anisotropic Etching of Silicon (K. Bean).

Silicon as a Mechanical Materials (K. Petersen).

Microrobots and Micromechanical Systems (W. Trimmer).

Small Machines, Large Opportunities (K. Gabriel, et al.).


IC-Processed Electrostatic Micro-Motors (L.-S. Fan, et al.).

IC-Processed Micro-Motors: Design, Technology, and Testing (Y.-C. Tai, et al.).

Surface-Micromachining Processes for Electrostatic Microactuator Fabrication (T. Lober and R. Howe).

A Study of Three Microfabricated Variable-Capacitance Motors (M. Mehregany, et al.).

Friction and Wear in Microfabricated Harmonic Side-Drive Motors (M. Mehregany, et al.).

Measurements of Electric Micromotor Dynamics (S. Bart, et al.).


Laterally Driven Polysilicon Resonant Microstructures (W. Tang, et al.).

Electrostatic-Comb Drive of Lateral Polysilicon Resonators (W. Tang, et al.).

Electrostatically Balanced Comb Drive for Controlled Levitation (W. Tang, et al.).

Polysilicon Microgripper (C.-J. Kim, et al.).


The Principle of an Electrostatic Linear Actuator Manufactured by Silicon Micromachining (H. Fujita and A. Omodaka).

Design Considerations for a Practical Electrostatic Micro-Motor (W. Trimmer and K. Gabriel).

SCOFSS: A Small Cantilevered Optical Fiber Servo System (J. Wood, et al.).

Microactuators for Aligning Optical Fibers (R. Jebens, et al.).

Large Displacement Linear Actuator (R. Brennen, et al.).

Multi-Layered Electrostatic Film Actuator (S. Egawa and T. Higuchi).

Movable Micromachined Silicon Plates With Integrated Position Sensing (M. Allen, et al.).

Micro Electro Static Actuator With Three Degrees of Freedom (T. Fukuda and T. Tanaka).

The Modelling of Electrostatic Forces in Small Electrostatic Actuators (R. Price. et al.).

Silicon Electrostatic Motors (W. Trimmer, et al.).

Electrostatic Actuators for Micromechatronics (H. Fujita and A. Omodaka).

Electric Micromotors: Electromechanical Characteristics (J. Lang, et al.).

Electroquasistatic Induction Micromotors (S. Bart and J. Lang)

A Perturbation Method for Calculating the Capacitance of Electrostatic Motors (S. Kumar and D. Cho)


Magnetically Levitated Micro-Machines (R. Pelrine and I. Busch-Vishniac).

Fabrication and Testing of a Micro Superconducting Actuator Using the Meissner Effect (Y.-K. Kim, et al.).

Room Temperature, Open-Loop Levitation of Microdevices Using Diamagnetic Materials (R. Pelrine).


An Operational Harmonic Electrostatic Motor (W. Trimmer and R. Jebens).

The Wobble Motor: An Electrostatic Planetary-Armature, Microactuator (S. Jacobsen, et al.).

An Electrostatic Top Motor and Its Characteristics (M. Sakata, et al.).

Operation of Microfabricated Harmonic and Ordinary Side-Drive Motors (M. Mehregany, et al.).



Micromechanical Silicon Actuators Based on Thermal Expansion Effects (W. Riethmüller, et al.).

CMOS Electrothermal Microactuators (M. Parameswaran, et al.).

Electrically-Activated, Micromachined Diaphragm Valves (H. Jerman).

Study on Micro Engines—Miniaturizing Stirling Engines for Actuators and Heatpumps (N. Nakajima, et al.).

Shape Memory Alloy.

A Micro Rotary Actuator Using Shape Memory Alloys (K. Gabriel, et al.).

Millimeter Size Joint Actuator Using Shape Memory Alloy (K. Kuribayashi).

Reversible SMA Actuator for Micron Sized Robot (K. Kuribayashi & M. Yoshitake).

Characteristics of Thin-Wire Shape Memory Actuators (P. Neukomm, et al.).

Shape Memory Alloy Microactuators (M. Bergamasco, et al.).


Micro Actuators Using Recoil of an Ejected Mass (T. Higuchi, et al.).

Precise Positioning Mechanism Utilizing Rapid Deformations of Piezoelectric Elements (T. Higuchi, et al.).

Tiny Silent Linear Cybernetic Actuator Driven by Piezoelectric Device With Electromagnetic Clamp (K. Ikuta, et al.).

Experimental Model and IC-Process Design of a Nanometer Linear Piezoelectric Stepper Motor (J. Judy, et al.).


Zinc-Oxide Thin Films for Integrated-Sensor Applications (D. Polla & R. Muller).

A Micromachined Manipulator for Submicron Positioning of Optical Fibers (A. Feury, et al.).

Ultrasonic Micromotors: Physics and Applications (R. Moroney, et al.).


A Microminiature Electric-to-Fluidic Valve (M. Zdeblick & J. Angell).

The Fabrication of Integrated Mass Flow Controllers (M. Esashi, et al.).

Normally Close Microvalve and Micropump Fabricated on a Silicon Wafer (M. Esashi, et al.).

A Thermopneumatic Micropump Based on Micro-Engineering Techniques (F. Van de Pol, et al.).

Variable-Flow Micro-Valve Structure Fabricated with Silicon Fusion Bonding (F. Pourahmadi, et al.).

A Pressure-Balanced Electrostatically-Actuated Microvalve (M. Huff, et al.).

Micromachined Silicon Microvalve (T. Ohnstein, et al.).


Microminiature Fluidic Amplifier (M. Zdeblick, et al.).

A Planar Air Levitated Electrostatic Actuator System (K. Pister, et al.).

Liquid and Gas Transport in Small Channels (J. Pfahler, et al.).

Squeeze-Film Damping in Solid-State Accelerometers (J. Starr).

A Micromachined Floating-Element Shear Sensor (M. Schmidt, et al.).

A Multi-Element Monolithic Mass Flowmeter with On-Chip CMOS Readout Electronics (E. Yoon & K. Wise).

Environmentally Rugged, Wide Dynamic Range Microstructure Airflow Sensor (T. Ohnstein, et al.).


Polycrystalline Silicon Micromechanical Beams (R. Howe & R. Muller).

Integrate Fabrication of Polysilicon Mechanisms (M. Mehregany, et al.).

Integrated Movable MicroMechanical Structures for Sensors and Actuators (L.-S. Fan, et al.).

Polysilicon Microbridge Fabrication Using Standard CMOS Technology (M. Parameswaran, et al.).

Process Integration for Active Polysilicon Resonant Microstructures (M. Putty, et al.).

Fabrication of Micromechanical Devices From Polysilicon Films With Smooth Surfaces (H. Guckel, et al.).

Selective Chemical Vapor Deposition of Tungsten for Microelectromechanical Structures (N. MacDonald, et al.).


Fabrication of Hemispherical Structures Using Semiconductor Technology for Use in Thermonuclear Fusion Research (K. Wise, et al.).

Micromachining of Silicon Mechanical Structures (G. Kaminsky).

Strings, Loops, and Pyramids—Building Blocks for Microstructrures (H. Busta, et al.).

Corner Compensation Structures for (110) Oriented Silicon (D. Ciarlo).

A Study on Compensating Corner Undercutting in Anisotropic Etching of (100) Silicon (X.-P. Wu & W. Ko).

A New Silicon-on-Glass Process for Integrated Sensors (L. Spangler and K. Wise).

Mechanisms of Anodic Bonding of Silicon to Pyrex® Glass (K. Albaugh, et al.).

Silicon Fusion Bonding for Pressure Sensors (K. Petersen, et al.).

Low-Temperature Silicon-to-silicon Anodic Bonding With Intermediate Low Melting Point Glass (M. Esashi, et al.).

Fusing Silicon Wafers With Low Melting Temperature Glass (L. Field & R. Muller).

Silicon Fusion Bonding for Fabrication of Sensors, Actuators and Microstructures (P. Barth).

Scaling and Dielectric Stress Compensation of Ultrasensitive Boron-Doped Silicon Microstructures (S. Cho, et al.).

Field Oxide Microbridges, Cantilever Beams, Coils and Suspended Membranes in SACMOS Technology (D. Moser, et al.).

Micromachining of Quartz and its Application to an Acceleration Sensor (J. Daniel, et al.).


Fabrication of Microstructures using the LIGA Process (W. Ehrfeld, et al.).

Deep X-Ray and UV Lithographies for Micromechanics (H. Guckel, et al.).


OYSTER, a 3D Structural Simulator for Micro Electromechanical Design (G. Koppelman).

A CAD Architecture for Microelectromechanical Systems (F. Maseeh, et al.).

CAEMEMS: An Integrated Computer-Aided Engineering Workbench for Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (S. Crary and Y. Zhang).

CAD for Silicon Anistropic Etching (R. Buser and N. de Rooij).


Can We Design Microbotic Devices Without Knowing the Mechanical Properties of Materials? (S. Senturia).

The Use of Micromachined Structure for the Measurement of Mechanical Properties and Adhesion of Thin Films (M. Mehregany, et al.).

Mechanical Property Measurement of Thin Films Using Load-Deflection of Composite Rectangular Membrane (O. Tabata, et al.).

Fracture Toughness Characterization of Brittle Thin Films (L. Fan, et al.).

Spiral Microstructures for the Measurement of Average Strain Gradients in Thin Films (L.-S. Fan, et al.).

Polysilicon Microstructures to Characterize Static Friction (M. Lim, et al.).

Study of the Dynamic Force/Acceleration Measurement (A. Umeda and K. Ueda).

Anomalous Emissivity from Periodic Micro Machined Silicon Surfaces (P. Hesketh, et al.).

Author Index.

Subject Index.

About the Author.

Editor's Notes on the Second Printing.