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Microrobotics for Micromanipulation



Microrobotics for Micromanipulation

Nicolas Chaillet (Editor), Stephane Regnier (Editor)

ISBN: 978-1-848-21186-5 July 2010 Wiley-ISTE 484 Pages

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Microrobotics for Micromanipulation presents for the first time, in detail, the sector of robotics for handling objects of micrometer dimensions. At these dimensions, the behavior of objects is significantly different from the better known, higher scales, which leads us to implement solutions sometimes radically different from those most commonly used. This book details the behavior of objects at the micrometer scale and suitable robotics solutions, in terms of actuators, grippers, manipulators, environmental perception and microtechnology. This book includes corrected exercises, enabling engineers, students and researchers to familiarize themselves with this emerging area and to contribute to its development through scientific measures.

Foreword xvii

Introduction xxi

Chapter 1. The Physics of the Microworld 1
Michael GAUTHIER, Pierre LAMBERT and Stephane REGNIER

1.1. Introduction 1

1.2.Details of the microworld 4

1.3.Surface forces 8

1.4.Contact forces 40

1.5. Experimental analysis of forces for micromanipulation 48

1.6.Forces in liquidmedia 60

1.7. Friction and roughness 78

1.8.Relevant parameters and indicators 85

1.9.Exercises 88

1.10.List of symbols 95

Chapter 2. Actuators for Microrobotics 99
Nicolas CHAILLET, Moustapha HAFEZ and Pierre LAMBERT

2.1. Introduction 99

2.2.Principles of motion and guiding 100

2.3.Classification of actuators 111

2.4.Piezoelectric actuators 113

2.5.Electrostatic actuators 126

2.6.Thermal actuators 141

2.7.Electro-activepolymers 160

2.8.Magneto-/electrorheologicalfluids 165

2.9.Summary 170

2.10.Suppliers of active materials 170

2.11.Exercises 173

Chapter 3. Microhandling and Micromanipulation Strategies 179
Michael GAUTHIER, Pierre LAMBERT and Stephane REGNIER

3.1. Introduction 179

3.2. Contact-free micromanipulation and positioning 180

3.3. Contact-based micromanipulation and positioning 197

3.4.Release strategies 220

3.5.Summary 230

3.6.Conclusion 234

3.7.Exercises 234

Chapter 4. Architecture of a Micromanipulation Station 243
Joel AGNUS, Mehdi BOUKALLEL, Cedric CLEVY, Sounkalo DEMBELE and Stephane REGNIER

4.1. Introduction 243

4.2.Kimenatics 244

4.3.Visual perception 261

4.4.Force sensing 283

4.5. Introduction to sensor-based linear multivariable control 294

4.6. Application to automation and remote operation for micromanipulation tasks 300

4.7.Environmental control 318

4.8.Applications 324

4.9.Conclusion 334

4.10.Exercises 334

Chapter 5. Microtechnologies and Micromanipulation 335

5.1. Silicon surface machining processes 335

5.2.Early demonstrators 343

5.3. Standard processes and fabrication examples 346

5.4.Alternative surface machining processes 352

5.5.Co-integrationwith electronics 356

5.6.Consistency of surface micromachining 360

5.7.Conclusion 367

Chapter 6. Future Prospects 369
Philippe LUTZ and Stephane REGNIER

6.1.Micromachining 369

6.2.Nanomanipulation 395

Chapter 7. Solutions to Exercises 415

7.1.Chapter 1 415

7.2.Chapter 2 423

7.3.Chapter 3 429

7.4.Chapter 4 443

Bibliography 447

List of Authors 481

Index 483