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Microsoft Windows Networking Essentials



Microsoft Windows Networking Essentials

Darril Gibson

ISBN: 978-1-118-07718-4 April 2011 368 Pages

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The core concepts and technologies of Windows networking

Networking can be a complex topic, especially for those new to the field of IT. This focused, full-color book takes a unique approach to teaching Windows networking to beginners by stripping down a network to its bare basics, thereby making each topic clear and easy to understand. Focusing on the new Microsoft Technology Associate (MTA) program, this book pares down to just the essentials, showing beginners how to gain a solid foundation for understanding networking concepts upon which more advanced topics and technologies can be built.

This straightforward guide begins each chapter by laying out a list of topics to be discussed, followed by a concise discussion of the core networking skills you need to have to gain a strong handle on the subject matter. Chapters conclude with review questions and suggested labs so you can measure your level of understanding of the chapter's content.

  • Serves as an ideal resource for gaining a solid understanding of fundamental networking concepts and skills
  • Offers a straightforward and direct approach to networking basics and covers network management tools, TCP/IP, the name resolution process, and network protocols and topologies
  • Reviews all the topics you need to know for taking the MTA 98-366 exam
  • Provides an overview of networking components, discusses connecting computers to a network, and looks at connecting networks with routers

If you're new to IT and interested in entering the IT workforce, then Microsoft Windows Networking Essentials is essential reading.

Related Resources

Introduction xix

Chapter 1 Introduction to Networking 1

Comparing Logical and Physical Networks 1

Networking Home Computers 2

Networking Small Offices and Home Offices 4

Understanding Local Area Networks 6

Comparing Workgroups and Domains 7

Exploring the Benefits of Domains and Domain Controllers 9

Networking Large Offices 10

Networking Enterprises 12

Understanding Wide Area Networks 12

Understanding Branch Offices 13

Accessing Networks Remotely 14

Understanding Standards Organizations 15

Understanding the Internet Engineering Task Force 16

Understanding the World Wide Web Consortium 17

Understanding the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers 18

Understanding the International Telecommunication Union 18

The Essentials and Beyond 18

Chapter 2 Overview of Networking Components 21

Comparing Unicast, Broadcast, and Multicast Traffic 21

Understanding Unicast Traffic 22

Understanding Broadcast Traffic 23

Understanding Multicast Traffic 25

Understanding Network Hardware 26

Understanding Hubs 27

Understanding Switches 28

Understanding Bridges 29

Understanding Routers 30

Understanding Firewalls 32

Understanding Media 34

Exploring Protocols and Services 36

Exploring Protocols 36

Understanding Services 37

Understanding Basic Topologies 38

The Essentials and Beyond 39

Chapter 3 Understanding the OSI Model 41

Understanding the OSI Model 41

Application Layer 43

Presentation Layer 44

Session Layer 45

Transport Layer 46

Network Layer 48

Data Link Layer 49

Physical Layer 52

Putting It Together 52

Packets and Frames 53

Understanding the TCP/IP Model 55

Mapping Devices on the OSI and TCP Models 56

Physical Layer 58

Data Link Layer 59

Network Layer 59

Application Layer 60

Mapping Protocols on the OSI and TCP/IP Models 60

The Essentials and Beyond 61

Chapter 4 Core TCP/IP Protocols 63

Understanding TCP and UDP 63

Exploring TCP 64

Exploring UDP 66

Exploring Common Protocols 67

Address Resolution Protocol 67

Hypertext Transfer Protocol 68

File Transfer Protocol 69

Trivial File Transfer Protocol 71

Telnet 71

Remote Desktop Services 71

Secure Sockets Layer 72

Transport Layer Security 72

Secure Shell 73

Internet Protocol Security 74

Simple Mail Transfer Protocol 74

Post Office Protocol v3 75

Internet Message Access Protocol 75

Lightweight Directory Access Protocol 76

Kerberos 77

Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol 77

Layer 2 Tunneling Protocol 77

Simple Network Management Protocol 78

Internet Group Multicast Protocol 78

Internet Control Message Protocol 78

Understanding Ports 79

Controlling Port Traffic with a Firewall 81

Mapping Internally Used Ports and Protocols 81

The Essentials and Beyond 83

Chapter 5 Exploring IPv4 85

Exploring the Components of an IPv4 Address 85

Ascertaining the Network ID and Host ID of an IP Address 86

Identifying the Default Gateway 90

Determining Local and Remote Addresses 91

Understanding Classful IP Addresses 92

Identifying Reserved IP Address Ranges 94

Exploring an IPv4 Address in Binary 95

Understanding the Bits of an IP Address 95

Understanding CIDR Notation 98

Masking the IP Address 98

Using Classless IP Addresses 100

Subnetting IPv4 Addresses 100

Determining the Number of Subnet Bits 101

Determining the Number of Hosts in a Network 103

Identifying Local and Remote Addresses 105

Applying Subnetting Knowledge 107

Comparing Manual and Automatic Assignment of IPv4 Addresses 110

Manually Configuring IPv4 110

Using DHCP 110

Understanding APIPA 112

The Essentials and Beyond 113

Chapter 6 Exploring IPv6 117

Exploring IPv6 Addresses 117

Comparing IPv4 Classes and IPv6 Prefixes 118

Understanding Hexadecimal 119

Displaying IPv6 Addresses 120

Comparing IPv6 Transmission Types 121

Understanding the Need for IPv6 122

Understanding Neighbor Discovery 122

Exploring the Components of an IPv6 Address 123

Understanding Global Unicast Addresses 124

Understanding Link-Local Addresses 125

Understanding Unique Local Addresses 126

Understanding the Dual IP Stack 127

Using IPv4-Mapped IPv6 Addresses 127

Understanding IPv4 to IPv6 Tunneling Protocols 128

Comparing Manual and Automatic Assignment of IPv6 129

Manually Configuring IPv6 129

Using DHCPv6 130

The Essentials and Beyond 131

Chapter 7 Connecting Computers to a Network 133

Identifying Potential Problems with Connectivity 133

Understanding EMI 134

Understanding RFI 134

Avoiding Power Spikes 134

Avoiding Interception 137

Preventing Fire Hazards 142

Understanding Cross Talk 142

Exploring Cable Types and Their Characteristics 144

Understanding Twisted Pair 144

Comparing Unshielded and Shielded Twisted Pair 146

Comparing Straight-Through and Crossover Cables 146

Understanding Fiber Optic 147

Understanding Wireless 149

The Essentials and Beyond 150

Chapter 8 Networking Computers with Switches 153

Connecting Multiple Computers 153

Understanding Physical Ports 156

Identifying the Number and Type of Ports 156

Identifying Ports in Drawings 157

Comparing Hubs and Switches 158

Understanding Collision Domains 159

Identifying a Collision Domain with a Hub 159

Identifying Collision Domains with a Switch 160

Mapping Ports to MAC Addresses 161

Comparing Managed and Unmanaged Switches 162

Understanding Unmanaged Switches 163

Understanding Managed Switches 163

Comparing Layer 2 and Layer 3 Switches 164

Using a Managed Switch to Create a VLAN 164

Exploring Switch Speeds 167

Identifying Transmission Speeds 168

Understanding the Uplink Port 169

Identifying Backplane Speed 170

Understanding Security Options 170

Understanding Port Security 171

Planning Hardware Redundancy 171

The Essentials and Beyond 172

Chapter 9 Connecting Networks with Routers 175

Connecting Multiple Networks 175

Comparing Hardware Routers and Software Routers 177

Understanding Default Routes 177

Understanding Directly Connected Routes 179

Routing Traffic on a Network 180

Creating Static Routes 180

Configuring Dynamic Routing 182

Understanding the Routing Table185

Identifying Transmission Speeds 187

Routing Software in Windows Server 2008 188

Adding Routing Services to Windows Server 2008 188

Configuring a Router on Windows Server 2008 190

Understanding Other Routing Protocols 192

Using a DHCP Relay Agent 193

Using an IGMP Router and Proxy 194

Using NAT 195

The Essentials and Beyond 195

Chapter 10 Resolving Names to IP Addresses 197

Exploring Types of Names Used in Networks 197

Understanding Host Names 199

Understanding NetBIOS Names 199

Creating NetBIOS Names from Host Names 202

Viewing and Modifying a Computer Name 203

Exploring Types of Name Resolution 204

Understanding Domain Naming Service 205

Viewing the Host Cache 210

Viewing the Hosts File 211

Understanding WINS 212

Viewing the NetBIOS Cache 213

Understanding the Lmhosts File 214

Understanding Broadcast Name Resolution 214

Understanding Link-Local Multicast Name Resolution 214

Identifying the Steps in Name Resolution 215

Identifying Steps in Host Name Resolution 215

Identifying Steps in NetBIOS Name Resolution 216

The Essentials and Beyond 217

Chapter 11 Understanding Network Security Zones 219

Understanding Risks on the Internet 219

Exploring an Intranet 221

Understanding Network Address Translation 222

Understanding Proxy Servers 224

Understanding Firewalls 227

Exploring the Windows Server 2008 Firewall 229

Identifying a Perimeter Network 232

Understanding a Reverse Proxy Server 233

Understanding Guest Networks 234

Understanding Extranets 235

The Essentials and Beyond 236

Chapter 12 Understanding Wireless Networking 239

Exploring Basic Wireless Components 239

Using Wireless Access Points 240

Naming the Wireless Network 241

Comparing CSMA/CD and CSMA/CA 243

Comparing Networking Standards and Characteristics 243

Comparing FHSS, DSSS, and OFDM 244

IEEE 802 11 245

IEEE 802 11a 246

IEEE 802 11b 247

IEEE 802 11g 247

IEEE 802 11n 248

Comparing Network Security Methods 248

Wired Equivalent Privacy 249

Wi-Fi Protected Access 251

WPA2 252

Using an IEEE 802 1x Authentication Server 253

Using Wireless Networks 254

Home Wireless Networks 255

Wireless Networks in a Business 258

Understanding Point-to-Point Wireless 259

The Essentials and Beyond 261

Chapter 13 Understanding Internet Access Methods and Wide Area Networks 263

Comparing Connectivity Methods Used in Homes and SOHOs 263

Using a Dial-up Connection 264

Connecting with DSL 265

Employing Broadband Cable 266

Connecting via Satellite 267

Comparing Connectivity Methods in Enterprises 269

Exploring Digital Signal Lines 271

Using ISDN 271

Using T1/T3 Lines and E1/E3 Lines 272

Ethernet WAN 273

Exploring Remote Access Services 273

Connecting to RAS via Dial-up 274

Connecting to RAS via a VPN 276

Comparing Client VPNs with Gateway VPNs 278

Adding Remote Access Services to Windows Server 2008 278

Using RADIUS 279

The Essentials and Beyond 280

Chapter 14 Troubleshooting TCP/IP 283

Using the Command Prompt 283

Getting Help at the Command Prompt 284

Using Switches 285

Understanding Case Sensitivity 285

Checking the TCP/IP Configuration with ipconfig 287

Troubleshooting Connectivity with ping 291

Identifying Routers with tracert 295

Verifying the Routed Path with pathping 297

Viewing TCP/IP Statistics with netstat 299

Installing Telnet 304

The Essentials and Beyond 306

Appendix A Answers to Review Questions 309

Chapter 1 309

Chapter 2 310

Chapter 3 310

Chapter 4 311

Chapter 5 312

Chapter 6 312

Chapter 7 313

Chapter 8 314

Chapter 9 314

Chapter 10 315

Chapter 11 316

Chapter 12 316

Chapter 13 317

Chapter 14 317

Appendix B Microsoft’s Certification Program 319

Certification Objectives Map 320

Index 325

Appendix C: Answers to Additional Exercises
Appendix D: Optional Lab
Corrected Figure 5.11: Determining the network ID of
Corrected graphic: Solution to IP Subnetting Challenge on page 113
Figure error
Errata in text
Table 5.1 snapshot for missing points is attached here.
ChapterPageDetailsDatePrint Run
594Text correction: Error in Figure 5.5
Class C Adresses, Host ID should read 8 Bits

5102Text correction: Errors in Figure 5.8
The header of the third column, "Subnet Values" should read "Subnet ID".

In the column headed "Four IP Ranges", the second and third entries are incorect.
"" should read ""
and "" should read ""

A fifth column should be shown to the right of "Four IP Ranges" with the header "Broadcast Address" and containing the following values:
4/30/131st & 2nd

5103Text correction: Errors in Figure 5.9
Under Subnet B, the range " to" should read " to"

Under Subnet C, The Network ID should read " / 26"
and the range " to" should read " to"

Under Subnet D, the Network ID should read " / 26"
2/7/141st & 2nd

5104-5Text correction: Subnet masks in Tables 5.12, 5.13 and 5.14
The "Subnet mask value" column in the three tables is in error. The correct subnet masks are listed below, by table.

Table 5.12

Table 5.13

Table 5.14

5107Text correction: Errors in binary, Figure 5.11
In the IP address converted to binary (first string of binary, in red) the last octet is incorrect. "0000 0001" (first two digits in red) should read "0100 0001".

In the binary Network ID, the third octet "0000 0011" is incorrect. It should read "0000 0001".

To download a marked-up copy of the figure indicating these corrections, visit the Downloads tab on this page.

5107Error in binary: Subnet Masks in Figures 5.10 and 5.11
The second line of binary in each figure, indicated as Step 2, contains an error. The group of zeroes to the right of the red line should contain six zeroes, not five, as shown. These six zeroes should be grouped 00 0000, with a space separating the first two from the final four zeroes.

5113Corrected graphic: Solution to IP Subnetting Challenge
The solution to the IP Subnetting Challenge on page 109, shown in the graphic on page 113, contains a number of errors. To download a corrected version of the graphic (Ch5 Challenge.tif) visit the Downloads tab on this page.
4/30/131st & 2nd

7135-137Text/Figure corrections: Errors under "Avoiding Power Spikes"
Change the second sentence of first paragraph following the sidebar on page 135 to read "This sine wave cycles at a rate of 60 Hertz (Hz). One Hz is one cycle per second so 60 Hz is 60 cycles per second but only two cycles are shown in the figure."

Change the label on the x-axis (horizontal axis) of Figures 7.1, 7.2 and 7.3 from "Time in seconds" to "Cycles"
8/5/131st & 2nd

9196Errata in text
Question 6 reads "True or false. Windows Server 2008 server supports RIPv2 and OSFP routing protocols".

Please change to ?Windows Server 2008 supports??

Question 8 starts with "True or false", but then goes on to give 4 choices of what I would add to allow multicast IP traffic through the router. That's not a true or false question.

Please delete ?True or false?

11220Text correction: Error under "Botnets and Malware"
The last sentence of the first paragraph of the sidebar, "Some were less benign..." should read "Some were relatively benign..."
8/5/131st & 2nd

313Text correction: Typo in Answers to Review Questions
In the answers to the Chapter 7 Review Questions, the answer to question 6 refers to "CAT 6E" cable. The second sentence should read "CAT 6A is rated at 10000 Mpbs."

351Errata in text
Table 3.2
Incorrect: Under the 'Organizationally unique identifier' heading, the hexadecimal numbers should be AA-BA-DB
Correct: The hexadecimal numbers should be A4-BA-DB
Note: Typo AA instead of A4

588Errata in text
Table 5.1
Incorrect: Row labelled 'network ID' read reads 192. 168 1 0
Correct: It should read 192. 168. 1. 0
Note: See Table 5.1 missing points in the downloads

597Errata in text
Incorrect: Sentence reads, "In binary form, the full IP address is 1100 0000 . 1010 1000 . 0000 . 0001 . 0000 0101.
Correct: It should read, "In binary form, the full IP address is 1100 0000 . 1010 1000 .0000 0001 . 0000 0101.
Note: "0000 . 0001" delete the dot here.

8166Errata in Text
Sentence ? "Additionally, you need to ensure that all the sales computers are connected only to ports F0/0 through F0/12."
"Additionally, you need to ensure that all the sales computers are connected only to ports F0/0 through F0/11."

7Table 7.3Errata in Table
Table 7.3
The 'speed' for 802.11n is stated as 300 Mbps.
The 'speed' for 802.11n should be stated as 600 Mbps.

5104Errata in Table
Table 5.12
The value shown is 0 (2yx2-2)
It should be 0 (2yx1-2)

13277Errata in Table
Refer to Table 13.5
There are two errors in this table.
(a) In the row identified as 'PPTP' it states its port as 1701.
The port should be stated as 1723.
(b) In the row identified as 'L2TP' it states its port as 1723.
The port should be stated as 1701.

11234Errata in Figure
Figure 11.9
Figure 11.9 A single firewall perimeter network
Figure 11.9 Using a reverse proxy server.

8166Errata in Figure
Figure 8.9
On the diagram, seek and find 'PC-5'. Its IP address is wrong.