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Midlatitude Ionospheric Dynamics and Disturbances

Midlatitude Ionospheric Dynamics and Disturbances


Published by the American Geophysical Union as part of the Geophysical Monograph Series, Volume 181.

Filling the need for a 20-year lag in substantial consideration of the midlatitude ionosphere, this volume focuses on work that takes advantage of GPS and UV imaging from satellites over the past decade, two methods that have profoundly transformed our understanding of this stratum of the atmosphere. Its interdisciplinary content brings together researchers of the solar wind, magnetosphere, ionosphere, thermosphere, polar and equatorial ionospheres, and space weather. Modeling and assimilative imaging of the ionosphere and thermosphere show for the first time the complex and global impact of midlatitude ionospheric storms.

The editors invited the leading experts in the following areas to contribute the chapters herein:

  • Characterization of Midlatitude Storms
  • Electric Field Coupling From the Heliosphere and Inner Magnetosphere
  • Thermospheric Control of the Midlatitude Ionosphere
  • Ionospheric Irregularities
  • Experimental Methods and New Techniques

These themes were chosen to create a path for understanding the midlatitude ionosphere. They continue to be largely valid and represent a coherent division of the subject matter. They will be critical for understanding space weather during the upcoming solar maximum.
This book was inspired by the Chapman Conference of the same name held January 2007.

Paul M. Kintner Jr ix

Midlatitude Ionospheric Dynamics and Disturbances: Introduction
Paul M. Kintner Jr., Anthea J. Coster, Tim Fuller-Rowell, Anthony J. Mannucci, Michael Mendillo, and Roderick Heelis 1

Section I: Characterization of Midlatitude Storms
Review and Overview

Ionospheric Storms at Mid-Latitude: A Short Review
Gerd W. Prölss 9

The Mid-Latitude Trough—Revisited
Alan Rodger 25

Assimilation of Observations With Models to Better Understand Severe Ionospheric Weather at Mid-Latitudes
Jan J. Sojka, R. W. Schunk, D. C. Thompson, L. Scherliess, and M. David 35

Low- and Middle-Latitude Ionospheric Dynamics Associated With Magnetic Storms
R. A. Heelis 51

A Data-Model Comparative Study of Ionospheric Positive Storm Phase in the Midlatitude F Region
G. Lu, L. P. Goncharenko, A. J. Coster, A. D. Richmond, R. G. Roble, N. Aponte, and L. J. Paxton 63

Recent Results

High-Resolution Observations of Subauroral Polarization Stream-Related Field Structures During a Geomagnetic Storm Using Passive Radar
Melissa G. Meyer 77

Ionization Dynamics During Storms of the Recent Solar Maximum
C. N. Mitchell, P. Yin, P. S. J. Spencer, and D. Pokhotelov 83

Mapping the Time-Varying Distribution of High-Altitude Plasma During Storms
G. S. Bust and Geoff Crowley 91

Section II: Electric Field Coupling From the Heliosphere and Inner Magnetosphere
Review and Overview

Interplanetary Causes of Middle Latitude Ionospheric Disturbances
Bruce T. Tsurutani, Ezequiel Echer, Fernando L. Guarnieri, and Olga P. Verkhoglyadova 99

Ionospheric-Magnetospheric-Heliospheric Coupling: Storm-Time Thermal Plasma Redistribution
John C. Foster 121

Recent Results

The Linkage Between the Ring Current and the Ionosphere System
P. C. Brandt, Y. Zheng, T. S. Sotirelis, K. Oksavik, and F. J. Rich 135

Storm Phase Dependence of Penetration of Magnetospheric Electric Fields to Mid and Low Latitudes
Takashi Kikuchi, Kumiko K. Hashimoto, and Kenro Nozaki 145

Relating the Interplanetary-Induced Electric Fields With the Low-Latitude Zonal Electric Fields Under Geomagnetically Disturbed Conditions
Adela Anghel, David Anderson, Jorge Chau, Kiyohumi Yumoto, and Archana Bhattacharyya 157

Simulation of PPEF Effects in Dayside Low-Latitude Ionosphere for the October 30, 2003, Superstorm
Olga P. Verkhoglyadova, Bruce T. Tsurutani, Anthony J. Mannucci, Akinori Saito, Tohru Araki, David Anderson, M. Abdu, and J. H. A. Sobral 169

Impact of the Neutral Wind Dynamo on the Development of the Region 2 Dynamo
T. W. Garner, Geoff Crowley, and R. A. Wolf 179

Section III: Thermospheric Control of the Mid-Latitude Ionosphere
Review and Overview

Global Modeling of Storm-Time Thermospheric Dynamics and Electrodynamics
T. J. Fuller-Rowell, A. D. Richmond, and N. Maruyama 187

Thermospheric Dynamics at Low and Mid-Latitudes During Magnetic Storm Activity
J. W. Meriwether 201

Disturbed O/N2 Ratios and Their Transport to Middle and Low Latitudes
Geoff Crowley and R. R. Meier 221

Storm Time Energy Budgets of the Global Thermosphere
William J. Burke 235

Recent Results

Sources of F-Region Height Changes During Geomagnetic Storms at Mid Latitudes
Mariangel Fedrizzi, T. J. Fuller-Rowell, Naomi Maruyama, Mihail Codrescu, and Hargobind Khalsa 247

Neutral Composition and Density Effects in the October-November 2003 Magnetic Storms
T. J. Immel, Geoff Crowley, J. M. Forbes, R. S. Nerem, and E. K. Sutton 259

Optical and Radio Observations and AMIE/TIEGCM Modeling of Nighttime Traveling Ionospheric Disturbances at Midlatitudes During Geomagnetic Storms
K. Shiokawa, T. Tsugawa, Y. Otsuka, T. Ogawa, G. Lu, A. Saito, and M. Yamamoto 271

Section IV: Ionospheric Gradients, Irregularities and User Needs

A Digest of Electrodynamic Coupling and Layer Instabilities in the Nighttime Midlatitude Ionosphere
Roland T. Tsunoda 283

Irregularities Within Subauroral Polarization Stream-Related Troughs and GPS Radio Interference at Midlatitudes
Evgeny Mishin and Natan Blaunstein 291

DEMETER Satellite Observations of Plasma Irregularities in the Topside Ionosphere at Low, Middle, and Sub-Auroral Latitudes and Their Dependence on Magnetic Storms
Robert F. Pfaff Jr., Carmen Liebrecht, Jean-Jacques Berthelier, Michel Malingre, Michel Parrot, and Jean-Pierre Lebreton 297

Optical and Radio Observations of Structure in the Midlatitude Ionosphere: Midlatitude Ionospheric Dynamics and Disturbances
Jonathan J. Makela 311

Section V: Experimental Methods and New Techniques

Global-Scale Observations of the Limb and Disk (GOLD): New Observing Capabilities for the Ionosphere-Thermosphere
R. W. Eastes, W. E. McClintock, M. V. Codrescu, A. Aksnes, D. N. Anderson, L. Andersson, D. N. Baker, A. G. Burns, S. A. Budzien, R. E. Daniell, K. F. Dymond, F. G. Eparvier, J. E. Harvey, T. J. Immel, A. Krywonos, M. R. Lankton, J. D. Lumpe, G. W. Prölss, A. D. Richmond, D. W. Rusch, O. H. Siegmund, S. C. Solomon, D. J. Strickland, and T. N. Woods 319